Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage

Rhys A Farrer (Corresponding Author), Lucy A Weinert, Jon Bielby, Trenton W J Garner, Francois Balloux, Frances Clare, Jaime Bosch, Andrew A Cunningham, Che Weldon, Louis H du Preez, Lucy Anderson, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Revital Shahar-Golan, Daniel A Henk, Matthew C Fisher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

269 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally ubiquitous fungal infection that has emerged to become a primary driver of amphibian biodiversity loss. Despite widespread effort to understand the emergence of this panzootic, the origins of the infection, its patterns of global spread, and principle mode of evolution remain largely unknown. Using comparative population genomics, we discovered three deeply diverged lineages of Bd associated with amphibians. Two of these lineages were found in multiple continents and are associated with known introductions by the amphibian trade. We found that isolates belonging to one clade, the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) have emerged across at least five continents during the 20th century and are associated with the onset of epizootics in North America, Central America, the Caribbean, Australia, and Europe. The two newly identified divergent lineages, Cape lineage (BdCAPE) and Swiss lineage (BdCH), were found to differ in morphological traits when compared against one another and BdGPL, and we show that BdGPL is hypervirulent. BdGPL uniquely bears the hallmarks of genomic recombination, manifested as extensive intergenomic phylogenetic conflict and patchily distributed heterozygosity. We postulate that contact between previously genetically isolated allopatric populations of Bd may have allowed recombination to occur, resulting in the generation, spread, and invasion of the hypervirulent BdGPL leading to contemporary disease-driven losses in amphibian biodiversity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18732-18736
Number of pages5
JournalPNAS
Volume108
Issue number46
Early online date7 Nov 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2011

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Chytridiomycota
Amphibians
Biodiversity
Genetic Recombination
Central America
Metagenomics
Mycoses
North America
Infection
Population

Keywords

  • chytridiomycosis
  • infectious
  • disease
  • extinction
  • epidemiology

Cite this

Farrer, R. A., Weinert, L. A., Bielby, J., Garner, T. W. J., Balloux, F., Clare, F., ... Fisher, M. C. (2011). Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage. PNAS, 108(46), 18732-18736. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1111915108

Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage. / Farrer, Rhys A (Corresponding Author); Weinert, Lucy A; Bielby, Jon; Garner, Trenton W J; Balloux, Francois; Clare, Frances; Bosch, Jaime; Cunningham, Andrew A; Weldon, Che; du Preez, Louis H; Anderson, Lucy; Pond, Sergei L Kosakovsky; Shahar-Golan, Revital; Henk, Daniel A; Fisher, Matthew C.

In: PNAS, Vol. 108, No. 46, 15.11.2011, p. 18732-18736.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Farrer, RA, Weinert, LA, Bielby, J, Garner, TWJ, Balloux, F, Clare, F, Bosch, J, Cunningham, AA, Weldon, C, du Preez, LH, Anderson, L, Pond, SLK, Shahar-Golan, R, Henk, DA & Fisher, MC 2011, 'Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage', PNAS, vol. 108, no. 46, pp. 18732-18736. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1111915108
Farrer, Rhys A ; Weinert, Lucy A ; Bielby, Jon ; Garner, Trenton W J ; Balloux, Francois ; Clare, Frances ; Bosch, Jaime ; Cunningham, Andrew A ; Weldon, Che ; du Preez, Louis H ; Anderson, Lucy ; Pond, Sergei L Kosakovsky ; Shahar-Golan, Revital ; Henk, Daniel A ; Fisher, Matthew C. / Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage. In: PNAS. 2011 ; Vol. 108, No. 46. pp. 18732-18736.
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abstract = "Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally ubiquitous fungal infection that has emerged to become a primary driver of amphibian biodiversity loss. Despite widespread effort to understand the emergence of this panzootic, the origins of the infection, its patterns of global spread, and principle mode of evolution remain largely unknown. Using comparative population genomics, we discovered three deeply diverged lineages of Bd associated with amphibians. Two of these lineages were found in multiple continents and are associated with known introductions by the amphibian trade. We found that isolates belonging to one clade, the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) have emerged across at least five continents during the 20th century and are associated with the onset of epizootics in North America, Central America, the Caribbean, Australia, and Europe. The two newly identified divergent lineages, Cape lineage (BdCAPE) and Swiss lineage (BdCH), were found to differ in morphological traits when compared against one another and BdGPL, and we show that BdGPL is hypervirulent. BdGPL uniquely bears the hallmarks of genomic recombination, manifested as extensive intergenomic phylogenetic conflict and patchily distributed heterozygosity. We postulate that contact between previously genetically isolated allopatric populations of Bd may have allowed recombination to occur, resulting in the generation, spread, and invasion of the hypervirulent BdGPL leading to contemporary disease-driven losses in amphibian biodiversity.",
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KW - disease

KW - extinction

KW - epidemiology

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