N-of-1methods in health behavior research

A systematic review

Suzanne McDonald, Francis Quinn, Rute Vieira, Nicola O'Brien, Martin White, Derek Johnston, Falko F Sniehotta

Research output: Contribution to journalAbstract

Abstract

Introduction: Conclusions from between-participant studies often misrepresent
variability between individuals and variability within individuals
over time. N-of-1 methods involve the repeated measurement of an individual
over time to make conclusions about that individual. This study
synthesized evidence about using N-of-1 methods to study and change
health behaviors, using examples from a systematic review of the literature,
with the aim to describe the state of the art, unmet challenges and
future opportunities for health behavior research.
Methods: Articles included were those which described observational or
interventional N-of-1 studies assessing health behavioral outcomes in any
population and reported data analysis and conclusions at the individual
level. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search databases for
articles published 2000-2013 meeting inclusion criteria.
Results: 3973 potentially relevant records were identified of which 31
full-text articles met inclusion criteria. The included studies used observational
designs (n=2) and interventional designs including AB (n=14),
ABAB (n=1), alternating treatments (n=3), N-of-1 randomized controlled
trial (n=3), multiple baseline (n=7) and changing-criterion (n=1) designs.
Studies assessed medication/treatment adherence (n=14), physical activity
(n=11), recreational drug use (n=3), sleep (n=2), alcohol use (n=2),
and smoking (n=1). Only a small proportion (n=9) of the studies used
statistical techniques to analyze the data.
Conclusions: The systematic review highlighted a number of opportunities
and open questions for applying N-of-1 methods in future health
behavior research. There is scope for using N-of-1 methods in a wider
context to answer key questions in health behavior research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S236
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume23(S1)
Issue numberSuppl. 1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
EventInternational Congress of Behavioral Medicine - Melbourne, Australia
Duration: 7 Dec 2016 → …

Fingerprint

Health Behavior
Research
Medication Adherence
Street Drugs
Sleep
Smoking
Alcohols
Databases
Health
Therapeutics

Cite this

N-of-1methods in health behavior research : A systematic review. / McDonald, Suzanne; Quinn, Francis; Vieira, Rute; O'Brien, Nicola; White, Martin; Johnston, Derek; Sniehotta, Falko F.

In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 23(S1), No. Suppl. 1, 2016, p. S236.

Research output: Contribution to journalAbstract

McDonald, Suzanne ; Quinn, Francis ; Vieira, Rute ; O'Brien, Nicola ; White, Martin ; Johnston, Derek ; Sniehotta, Falko F. / N-of-1methods in health behavior research : A systematic review. In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2016 ; Vol. 23(S1), No. Suppl. 1. pp. S236.
@article{265e50e5f1814ad6aa04542a3f43a230,
title = "N-of-1methods in health behavior research: A systematic review",
abstract = "Introduction: Conclusions from between-participant studies often misrepresentvariability between individuals and variability within individualsover time. N-of-1 methods involve the repeated measurement of an individualover time to make conclusions about that individual. This studysynthesized evidence about using N-of-1 methods to study and changehealth behaviors, using examples from a systematic review of the literature,with the aim to describe the state of the art, unmet challenges andfuture opportunities for health behavior research.Methods: Articles included were those which described observational orinterventional N-of-1 studies assessing health behavioral outcomes in anypopulation and reported data analysis and conclusions at the individuallevel. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search databases forarticles published 2000-2013 meeting inclusion criteria.Results: 3973 potentially relevant records were identified of which 31full-text articles met inclusion criteria. The included studies used observationaldesigns (n=2) and interventional designs including AB (n=14),ABAB (n=1), alternating treatments (n=3), N-of-1 randomized controlledtrial (n=3), multiple baseline (n=7) and changing-criterion (n=1) designs.Studies assessed medication/treatment adherence (n=14), physical activity(n=11), recreational drug use (n=3), sleep (n=2), alcohol use (n=2),and smoking (n=1). Only a small proportion (n=9) of the studies usedstatistical techniques to analyze the data.Conclusions: The systematic review highlighted a number of opportunitiesand open questions for applying N-of-1 methods in future healthbehavior research. There is scope for using N-of-1 methods in a widercontext to answer key questions in health behavior research.",
author = "Suzanne McDonald and Francis Quinn and Rute Vieira and Nicola O'Brien and Martin White and Derek Johnston and Sniehotta, {Falko F}",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1007/s12529-016-9586-3",
language = "English",
volume = "23(S1)",
pages = "S236",
journal = "International Journal of Behavioral Medicine",
issn = "1070-5503",
publisher = "Routledge",
number = "Suppl. 1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - N-of-1methods in health behavior research

T2 - A systematic review

AU - McDonald, Suzanne

AU - Quinn, Francis

AU - Vieira, Rute

AU - O'Brien, Nicola

AU - White, Martin

AU - Johnston, Derek

AU - Sniehotta, Falko F

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Introduction: Conclusions from between-participant studies often misrepresentvariability between individuals and variability within individualsover time. N-of-1 methods involve the repeated measurement of an individualover time to make conclusions about that individual. This studysynthesized evidence about using N-of-1 methods to study and changehealth behaviors, using examples from a systematic review of the literature,with the aim to describe the state of the art, unmet challenges andfuture opportunities for health behavior research.Methods: Articles included were those which described observational orinterventional N-of-1 studies assessing health behavioral outcomes in anypopulation and reported data analysis and conclusions at the individuallevel. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search databases forarticles published 2000-2013 meeting inclusion criteria.Results: 3973 potentially relevant records were identified of which 31full-text articles met inclusion criteria. The included studies used observationaldesigns (n=2) and interventional designs including AB (n=14),ABAB (n=1), alternating treatments (n=3), N-of-1 randomized controlledtrial (n=3), multiple baseline (n=7) and changing-criterion (n=1) designs.Studies assessed medication/treatment adherence (n=14), physical activity(n=11), recreational drug use (n=3), sleep (n=2), alcohol use (n=2),and smoking (n=1). Only a small proportion (n=9) of the studies usedstatistical techniques to analyze the data.Conclusions: The systematic review highlighted a number of opportunitiesand open questions for applying N-of-1 methods in future healthbehavior research. There is scope for using N-of-1 methods in a widercontext to answer key questions in health behavior research.

AB - Introduction: Conclusions from between-participant studies often misrepresentvariability between individuals and variability within individualsover time. N-of-1 methods involve the repeated measurement of an individualover time to make conclusions about that individual. This studysynthesized evidence about using N-of-1 methods to study and changehealth behaviors, using examples from a systematic review of the literature,with the aim to describe the state of the art, unmet challenges andfuture opportunities for health behavior research.Methods: Articles included were those which described observational orinterventional N-of-1 studies assessing health behavioral outcomes in anypopulation and reported data analysis and conclusions at the individuallevel. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search databases forarticles published 2000-2013 meeting inclusion criteria.Results: 3973 potentially relevant records were identified of which 31full-text articles met inclusion criteria. The included studies used observationaldesigns (n=2) and interventional designs including AB (n=14),ABAB (n=1), alternating treatments (n=3), N-of-1 randomized controlledtrial (n=3), multiple baseline (n=7) and changing-criterion (n=1) designs.Studies assessed medication/treatment adherence (n=14), physical activity(n=11), recreational drug use (n=3), sleep (n=2), alcohol use (n=2),and smoking (n=1). Only a small proportion (n=9) of the studies usedstatistical techniques to analyze the data.Conclusions: The systematic review highlighted a number of opportunitiesand open questions for applying N-of-1 methods in future healthbehavior research. There is scope for using N-of-1 methods in a widercontext to answer key questions in health behavior research.

U2 - 10.1007/s12529-016-9586-3

DO - 10.1007/s12529-016-9586-3

M3 - Abstract

VL - 23(S1)

SP - S236

JO - International Journal of Behavioral Medicine

JF - International Journal of Behavioral Medicine

SN - 1070-5503

IS - Suppl. 1

ER -