Hydrodynamics under regular plunging breaking waves over a fixed breaker bar were studied in a large-scale wave flume. A previous paper reported on the outer flow hydrodynamics (van der A et al., 2017, J.Geoph.Res. 122(4)); the present paper focuses on the turbulence dynamics near the bed (up to 0.10 m from the bed). Velocities were measured with high spatial and temporal resolution using a two-component laser Doppler anemometer. The results show that even at close distance from the bed (1 mm), the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) increases by a factor five between the shoaling and breaking regions because of invasion of wave breaking turbulence. The sign and phase behaviour of the time-dependent Reynolds shear stresses at elevations up to approximately 0.02 m from the bed (roughly twice the elevation of the boundary layer overshoot) are mainly controlled by local bed-shear-generated turbulence, but at higher elevations Reynolds stresses are controlled by wave breaking turbulence. The measurements are subsequently analysed to investigate the TKE budget at wave-averaged and intra-wave time scales. Horizontal and vertical turbulence advection, production, and dissipation are the major terms. A two-dimensional wave-averaged circulation drives advection of wave breaking turbulence through the near-bed layer, resulting in a net downward influx in the bar trough region, followed by seaward advection along the bar's shoreward slope, and an upward outflux above the bar crest. The strongly non-uniform flow across the bar combined with the presence of anisotropic turbulence enhances turbulent production rates near the bed.
- breaking waves
- wave bottom boundary layer
- surf zone
- wave flume experiment
Van Der Zanden, J., Van der A, D. A., Cáceres, I., Hurther, D., McLelland, S. J., Ribberink, J. S., & O'Donoghue, T. (2018). Near-Bed Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget Under a Large-Scale Plunging Breaking Wave Over a Fixed Bar. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(2), 1429-1456. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC013411