New evidence for the consumption of barley at Romano-British military and civilian sites from the analysis of cereal bran fragments in faecal material

Kate Britton, J Huntley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract Despite the abundance of barley in the archaeobotanical record at Roman military sites along Hadrian’s Wall in northern England, and the suitability of the British climate for growing the grain, contention still remains concerning the human consumption of this cereal in the Roman world. Previous experimental and archaeological work has demonstrated that cereal bran fragments
in faecal material can be successfully assigned to species. Here, microscopic analysis of plant fragments is utilised to investigate the relative abundance of Triticum/Secale (wheat/rye), Hordeum (barley) and Avena (oats) from faecal deposits from two Roman military sites and a contemporary civilian settlement in Carlisle. Cereal bran was identified in all deposits, along with certain other edible
plant fragments such as Coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Allium sp. (onion genus). The presence of barley in deposits from military sites appears to confirm its consumption, with the frequency and size of fragments hinting at likely occasional culinary use in soups and stews. Increased frequency at the contemporary civilian site indicates more widespread culinary use in non-military settlements. The practical and analytical limitations of thismethod are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-52
Number of pages12
JournalVegetation History and Archaeobotany
Volume20
Issue number1
Early online date19 May 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011

Fingerprint

bran
barley
cereal
Coriandrum sativum
stews
Secale
Avena (Poaceae)
Hordeum
soups
Allium
Triticum
onions
rye
England
oats
relative abundance
wheat
climate
material
analysis

Keywords

  • Roman military diet
  • cereal bran
  • barley
  • faecal material
  • Northern England
  • Hadrian's Wall

Cite this

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title = "New evidence for the consumption of barley at Romano-British military and civilian sites from the analysis of cereal bran fragments in faecal material",
abstract = "Abstract Despite the abundance of barley in the archaeobotanical record at Roman military sites along Hadrian’s Wall in northern England, and the suitability of the British climate for growing the grain, contention still remains concerning the human consumption of this cereal in the Roman world. Previous experimental and archaeological work has demonstrated that cereal bran fragments in faecal material can be successfully assigned to species. Here, microscopic analysis of plant fragments is utilised to investigate the relative abundance of Triticum/Secale (wheat/rye), Hordeum (barley) and Avena (oats) from faecal deposits from two Roman military sites and a contemporary civilian settlement in Carlisle. Cereal bran was identified in all deposits, along with certain other edible plant fragments such as Coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Allium sp. (onion genus). The presence of barley in deposits from military sites appears to confirm its consumption, with the frequency and size of fragments hinting at likely occasional culinary use in soups and stews. Increased frequency at the contemporary civilian site indicates more widespread culinary use in non-military settlements. The practical and analytical limitations of thismethod are discussed.",
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AU - Britton, Kate

AU - Huntley, J

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N2 - Abstract Despite the abundance of barley in the archaeobotanical record at Roman military sites along Hadrian’s Wall in northern England, and the suitability of the British climate for growing the grain, contention still remains concerning the human consumption of this cereal in the Roman world. Previous experimental and archaeological work has demonstrated that cereal bran fragments in faecal material can be successfully assigned to species. Here, microscopic analysis of plant fragments is utilised to investigate the relative abundance of Triticum/Secale (wheat/rye), Hordeum (barley) and Avena (oats) from faecal deposits from two Roman military sites and a contemporary civilian settlement in Carlisle. Cereal bran was identified in all deposits, along with certain other edible plant fragments such as Coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Allium sp. (onion genus). The presence of barley in deposits from military sites appears to confirm its consumption, with the frequency and size of fragments hinting at likely occasional culinary use in soups and stews. Increased frequency at the contemporary civilian site indicates more widespread culinary use in non-military settlements. The practical and analytical limitations of thismethod are discussed.

AB - Abstract Despite the abundance of barley in the archaeobotanical record at Roman military sites along Hadrian’s Wall in northern England, and the suitability of the British climate for growing the grain, contention still remains concerning the human consumption of this cereal in the Roman world. Previous experimental and archaeological work has demonstrated that cereal bran fragments in faecal material can be successfully assigned to species. Here, microscopic analysis of plant fragments is utilised to investigate the relative abundance of Triticum/Secale (wheat/rye), Hordeum (barley) and Avena (oats) from faecal deposits from two Roman military sites and a contemporary civilian settlement in Carlisle. Cereal bran was identified in all deposits, along with certain other edible plant fragments such as Coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Allium sp. (onion genus). The presence of barley in deposits from military sites appears to confirm its consumption, with the frequency and size of fragments hinting at likely occasional culinary use in soups and stews. Increased frequency at the contemporary civilian site indicates more widespread culinary use in non-military settlements. The practical and analytical limitations of thismethod are discussed.

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KW - Northern England

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