New perspectives into the biological and clinical relevance of oestrogen receptors in the human breast

V Speirs, R A Walker

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

45 Citations (Scopus)


Oestrogen receptor (ER) is arguably the single most important biological predictive factor that exists today. In the last 10 years or so, however, our understanding of ER biology has undergone a paradigm shift following the identification of a second ER, ERbeta, with the original ER being renamed ERalpha. A number of isoforms have additionally been described, especially for ERbeta. Our knowledge of ER signalling has also increased with the recognition of accessory co-regulatory proteins, which help direct the transcriptional cascade. Here we outline these changes and discuss what biological and clinical implications these could have in the mammary gland.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)499-506
Number of pages8
JournalThe Journal of pathology
Issue number5
Early online date18 Jan 2007
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2007



  • Animals
  • Breast
  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Estrogen Receptor beta
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Phosphorylation
  • Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

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