Novel biomechanical analysis of plant roots

O. Hamza, A. G. Bengough, M. F. Bransby, M. C. R. Davies, C. Halpin, P. D. Hallett*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

The mechanical behaviour of individual roots and their interaction with soil controls plant anchorage and slope stabilisation, and this is controlled by plant genotype. Tensile tests were performed on roots of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Samsun') plants with lignin biosynthesis pathways affected by down-regulating cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) enzyme production. Altering this pathway resulted in root stiffness <50% of the unmodified control, although failure stress was not different. Like most biological tissues, the roots had non-linear mechanical behaviour, were irregular in shape, and heterogeneous. Particle image velocimetry (PIV), applied for the first time to the tensile testing of materials, identified the localised strain fields that developed in roots under tension. PIV uses a cross correlation technique to measure localised displacements on the surface of the root between sequential digital images taken at successive strain intervals during tensile loading. Further analysis of root sections showed that non-linear mechanical behaviour is affected by cellular rupture, with a clear step-wise rupture from cortex to stele in some younger roots. This will affect slip planes that develop under pull-out at the root-soil interface. By assessing localised axial and radial strain along a root section with PIV, we have been able to determine the true stress that controls ultimate failure and the true stress-strain behaviour along the root length. The techniques used have clear potential to enhance our understanding of mechanical interactions at the root-soil interface.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEco- and Ground Bio-Engineering
Subtitle of host publicationThe Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability
EditorsA Stokes, Spanos, JE Norris, E Cammeraat
Place of PublicationDordrecht
PublisherSpringer
Pages13-20
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4020-5593-5
ISBN (Print)978-1-4020-5592-8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Event1st International Conference on Eco-Engineering - Thessaloniki, Greece
Duration: 13 Sep 200417 Sep 2004

Publication series

NameDevelopments in Plant and Soil Sciences
PublisherSpringer
Volume103

Conference

Conference1st International Conference on Eco-Engineering
CountryGreece
CityThessaloniki
Period13/09/0417/09/04

Keywords

  • nicotiana-tabacum samsun
  • down-regulation
  • mechanical-properties
  • tissue
  • winter-wheat cultivars
  • tobacco plants
  • cinnamyl alcohol-dehydrogenase
  • soil
  • root biomechanics
  • lignin content
  • tobacco
  • lignin-modified
  • anchorage mechanics
  • particle image velocimetry

Cite this

Hamza, O., Bengough, A. G., Bransby, M. F., Davies, M. C. R., Halpin, C., & Hallett, P. D. (2007). Novel biomechanical analysis of plant roots. In A. Stokes, Spanos, JE. Norris, & E. Cammeraat (Eds.), Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability (pp. 13-20). (Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences; Vol. 103). Dordrecht: Springer . https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5593-5

Novel biomechanical analysis of plant roots. / Hamza, O.; Bengough, A. G.; Bransby, M. F.; Davies, M. C. R.; Halpin, C.; Hallett, P. D.

Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability. ed. / A Stokes; Spanos; JE Norris; E Cammeraat. Dordrecht : Springer , 2007. p. 13-20 (Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences; Vol. 103).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Hamza, O, Bengough, AG, Bransby, MF, Davies, MCR, Halpin, C & Hallett, PD 2007, Novel biomechanical analysis of plant roots. in A Stokes, Spanos, JE Norris & E Cammeraat (eds), Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences, vol. 103, Springer , Dordrecht, pp. 13-20, 1st International Conference on Eco-Engineering, Thessaloniki, Greece, 13/09/04. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5593-5
Hamza O, Bengough AG, Bransby MF, Davies MCR, Halpin C, Hallett PD. Novel biomechanical analysis of plant roots. In Stokes A, Spanos, Norris JE, Cammeraat E, editors, Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability. Dordrecht: Springer . 2007. p. 13-20. (Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5593-5
Hamza, O. ; Bengough, A. G. ; Bransby, M. F. ; Davies, M. C. R. ; Halpin, C. ; Hallett, P. D. / Novel biomechanical analysis of plant roots. Eco- and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability. editor / A Stokes ; Spanos ; JE Norris ; E Cammeraat. Dordrecht : Springer , 2007. pp. 13-20 (Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences).
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N2 - The mechanical behaviour of individual roots and their interaction with soil controls plant anchorage and slope stabilisation, and this is controlled by plant genotype. Tensile tests were performed on roots of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Samsun') plants with lignin biosynthesis pathways affected by down-regulating cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) enzyme production. Altering this pathway resulted in root stiffness <50% of the unmodified control, although failure stress was not different. Like most biological tissues, the roots had non-linear mechanical behaviour, were irregular in shape, and heterogeneous. Particle image velocimetry (PIV), applied for the first time to the tensile testing of materials, identified the localised strain fields that developed in roots under tension. PIV uses a cross correlation technique to measure localised displacements on the surface of the root between sequential digital images taken at successive strain intervals during tensile loading. Further analysis of root sections showed that non-linear mechanical behaviour is affected by cellular rupture, with a clear step-wise rupture from cortex to stele in some younger roots. This will affect slip planes that develop under pull-out at the root-soil interface. By assessing localised axial and radial strain along a root section with PIV, we have been able to determine the true stress that controls ultimate failure and the true stress-strain behaviour along the root length. The techniques used have clear potential to enhance our understanding of mechanical interactions at the root-soil interface.

AB - The mechanical behaviour of individual roots and their interaction with soil controls plant anchorage and slope stabilisation, and this is controlled by plant genotype. Tensile tests were performed on roots of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Samsun') plants with lignin biosynthesis pathways affected by down-regulating cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) enzyme production. Altering this pathway resulted in root stiffness <50% of the unmodified control, although failure stress was not different. Like most biological tissues, the roots had non-linear mechanical behaviour, were irregular in shape, and heterogeneous. Particle image velocimetry (PIV), applied for the first time to the tensile testing of materials, identified the localised strain fields that developed in roots under tension. PIV uses a cross correlation technique to measure localised displacements on the surface of the root between sequential digital images taken at successive strain intervals during tensile loading. Further analysis of root sections showed that non-linear mechanical behaviour is affected by cellular rupture, with a clear step-wise rupture from cortex to stele in some younger roots. This will affect slip planes that develop under pull-out at the root-soil interface. By assessing localised axial and radial strain along a root section with PIV, we have been able to determine the true stress that controls ultimate failure and the true stress-strain behaviour along the root length. The techniques used have clear potential to enhance our understanding of mechanical interactions at the root-soil interface.

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KW - root biomechanics

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