Nutrient oxidation patterns and protein metabolism in lean and obese subjects

A C Bruce, M A McNurlan, K C McHardy, J Broom, K D Buchanan, Alexander Graham Calder, Eric Milne, B A McGaw, P J Garlick, W P James

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The immediate metabolic response to eating has been compared in a group of grossly obese subjects (W/H2 = 45) with that in lean controls (W/H2 = 22). Dietary intake of energy for obese subjects was based on their estimated basal energy expenditure for ideal body weight (given at an hourly rate of 3 X BMR over a 4-h period). Lean subjects were measured twice: control 1 with the same intake of energy as the obese in terms of ideal body weight and control 2 with the same energy intake in relation to each subject's measured resting energy expenditure (2.2 X REE). The changes in energy expenditure and nutrient disposal with the onset of eating have been assessed by a method of combined respiratory gas analysis and intravenous infusion of 13C-labelled leucine. Leucine kinetics were used to quantitate rapid changes in protein oxidation and to assess protein synthesis and degradation. 1) Total energy expenditure was 20-30 per cent greater in obese subjects than lean subjects in fasting and feeding. Energy expenditure expressed per kg fat-free mass, from D2O dilution, was similar in obese and lean subjects in both fasting (5.8 v. 5.5 kJ/kg FFM/h) and feeding [6.7 v. 6.3 (Control 2) kJ/kg FFM/h]. 2) The onset of eating was associated with increased carbohydrate and protein oxidation with decreased fat oxidation in both lean and obese individuals. In obese subjects, however, both the decrease in fat oxidation and the increase in protein oxidation were significantly smaller (P less than 0.05) than the corresponding increments in lean subjects (Control 2). 3) The rate of protein synthesis was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in obese subjects both in the fasting state (99 v. 84 mumols leucine/kg FFM/h) and in the fed state [94 v. 67 (Control 2) mumols leucine/kg FFM/h]. The rate of protein degradation was also higher in obese individuals in fasting (117 +/- 6 v. 106 +/- 4 mumol leucine/kg FFM/h) and feeding [65 +/- 4 v. 54 +/- 6 (Control 2) mumol leucine/kg FFM/h] though these differences are not statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). 4) The observed differences between obese and lean individuals in protein and energy metabolism in the fasted state and in the immediate response to eating do not support a hypothesis of greater metabolic efficiency in obesity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)631-646
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Volume14
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 1990

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Leucine
Energy Metabolism
Food
Fasting
Eating
Energy Intake
Ideal Body Weight
Proteins
Fats
Proteolysis
Intravenous Infusions
Obesity
Gases
Carbohydrates

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Calorimetry, Indirect
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Energy Intake
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity
  • Proteins
  • nutrient
  • oxidation
  • energetic cost
  • proteins
  • metabolism
  • calorimetry
  • human
  • obesity

Cite this

Bruce, A. C., McNurlan, M. A., McHardy, K. C., Broom, J., Buchanan, K. D., Calder, A. G., ... James, W. P. (1990). Nutrient oxidation patterns and protein metabolism in lean and obese subjects. International Journal of Obesity, 14(7), 631-646.

Nutrient oxidation patterns and protein metabolism in lean and obese subjects. / Bruce, A C; McNurlan, M A; McHardy, K C; Broom, J; Buchanan, K D; Calder, Alexander Graham; Milne, Eric; McGaw, B A; Garlick, P J; James, W P.

In: International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 14, No. 7, 01.07.1990, p. 631-646.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bruce, AC, McNurlan, MA, McHardy, KC, Broom, J, Buchanan, KD, Calder, AG, Milne, E, McGaw, BA, Garlick, PJ & James, WP 1990, 'Nutrient oxidation patterns and protein metabolism in lean and obese subjects', International Journal of Obesity, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 631-646.
Bruce AC, McNurlan MA, McHardy KC, Broom J, Buchanan KD, Calder AG et al. Nutrient oxidation patterns and protein metabolism in lean and obese subjects. International Journal of Obesity. 1990 Jul 1;14(7):631-646.
Bruce, A C ; McNurlan, M A ; McHardy, K C ; Broom, J ; Buchanan, K D ; Calder, Alexander Graham ; Milne, Eric ; McGaw, B A ; Garlick, P J ; James, W P. / Nutrient oxidation patterns and protein metabolism in lean and obese subjects. In: International Journal of Obesity. 1990 ; Vol. 14, No. 7. pp. 631-646.
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AU - Calder, Alexander Graham

AU - Milne, Eric

AU - McGaw, B A

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N2 - The immediate metabolic response to eating has been compared in a group of grossly obese subjects (W/H2 = 45) with that in lean controls (W/H2 = 22). Dietary intake of energy for obese subjects was based on their estimated basal energy expenditure for ideal body weight (given at an hourly rate of 3 X BMR over a 4-h period). Lean subjects were measured twice: control 1 with the same intake of energy as the obese in terms of ideal body weight and control 2 with the same energy intake in relation to each subject's measured resting energy expenditure (2.2 X REE). The changes in energy expenditure and nutrient disposal with the onset of eating have been assessed by a method of combined respiratory gas analysis and intravenous infusion of 13C-labelled leucine. Leucine kinetics were used to quantitate rapid changes in protein oxidation and to assess protein synthesis and degradation. 1) Total energy expenditure was 20-30 per cent greater in obese subjects than lean subjects in fasting and feeding. Energy expenditure expressed per kg fat-free mass, from D2O dilution, was similar in obese and lean subjects in both fasting (5.8 v. 5.5 kJ/kg FFM/h) and feeding [6.7 v. 6.3 (Control 2) kJ/kg FFM/h]. 2) The onset of eating was associated with increased carbohydrate and protein oxidation with decreased fat oxidation in both lean and obese individuals. In obese subjects, however, both the decrease in fat oxidation and the increase in protein oxidation were significantly smaller (P less than 0.05) than the corresponding increments in lean subjects (Control 2). 3) The rate of protein synthesis was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in obese subjects both in the fasting state (99 v. 84 mumols leucine/kg FFM/h) and in the fed state [94 v. 67 (Control 2) mumols leucine/kg FFM/h]. The rate of protein degradation was also higher in obese individuals in fasting (117 +/- 6 v. 106 +/- 4 mumol leucine/kg FFM/h) and feeding [65 +/- 4 v. 54 +/- 6 (Control 2) mumol leucine/kg FFM/h] though these differences are not statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). 4) The observed differences between obese and lean individuals in protein and energy metabolism in the fasted state and in the immediate response to eating do not support a hypothesis of greater metabolic efficiency in obesity.

AB - The immediate metabolic response to eating has been compared in a group of grossly obese subjects (W/H2 = 45) with that in lean controls (W/H2 = 22). Dietary intake of energy for obese subjects was based on their estimated basal energy expenditure for ideal body weight (given at an hourly rate of 3 X BMR over a 4-h period). Lean subjects were measured twice: control 1 with the same intake of energy as the obese in terms of ideal body weight and control 2 with the same energy intake in relation to each subject's measured resting energy expenditure (2.2 X REE). The changes in energy expenditure and nutrient disposal with the onset of eating have been assessed by a method of combined respiratory gas analysis and intravenous infusion of 13C-labelled leucine. Leucine kinetics were used to quantitate rapid changes in protein oxidation and to assess protein synthesis and degradation. 1) Total energy expenditure was 20-30 per cent greater in obese subjects than lean subjects in fasting and feeding. Energy expenditure expressed per kg fat-free mass, from D2O dilution, was similar in obese and lean subjects in both fasting (5.8 v. 5.5 kJ/kg FFM/h) and feeding [6.7 v. 6.3 (Control 2) kJ/kg FFM/h]. 2) The onset of eating was associated with increased carbohydrate and protein oxidation with decreased fat oxidation in both lean and obese individuals. In obese subjects, however, both the decrease in fat oxidation and the increase in protein oxidation were significantly smaller (P less than 0.05) than the corresponding increments in lean subjects (Control 2). 3) The rate of protein synthesis was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in obese subjects both in the fasting state (99 v. 84 mumols leucine/kg FFM/h) and in the fed state [94 v. 67 (Control 2) mumols leucine/kg FFM/h]. The rate of protein degradation was also higher in obese individuals in fasting (117 +/- 6 v. 106 +/- 4 mumol leucine/kg FFM/h) and feeding [65 +/- 4 v. 54 +/- 6 (Control 2) mumol leucine/kg FFM/h] though these differences are not statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). 4) The observed differences between obese and lean individuals in protein and energy metabolism in the fasted state and in the immediate response to eating do not support a hypothesis of greater metabolic efficiency in obesity.

KW - Adult

KW - Calorimetry, Indirect

KW - Dietary Carbohydrates

KW - Energy Intake

KW - Energy Metabolism

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Obesity

KW - Proteins

KW - nutrient

KW - oxidation

KW - energetic cost

KW - proteins

KW - metabolism

KW - calorimetry

KW - human

KW - obesity

M3 - Article

VL - 14

SP - 631

EP - 646

JO - International Journal of Obesity

JF - International Journal of Obesity

SN - 0307-0565

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ER -