BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that the risk of obstetric and perinatal outcomes is higher in women with assisted reproductive technology (ART). However, there is little known about pregnancy related complications and co-morbidity in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) following singleton pregnancies achieved by ART in comparison with spontaneous conception (SC).
METHODS: Two hundred sixty singleton pregnant women conceived by ART and 314 pregnant women conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) were participated in this prospective cohort study. All participants were enrolled after GDM screening through one-step oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and then grouped into GDM and non-GDM groups. Women were followed for pregnancy outcomes including pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), preeclampsia, antepartum hemorrhage (APH), cesarean section (CS), preterm birth (PTB), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), being small or large for gestational age (SGA or LGA), macrosomia, low birth weight (LBW), respiratory distress, neonatal hypoglycemia, NICU admission and perinatal mortality from antenatal visits to delivery. Confounding factors were adjusted in logistic regression model in order to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs).
RESULTS: Among 260 ART and 314 SC, 135 and 152 women were GDM women, respectively. Higher maternal age and pre-gravid BMI, shorter duration of gestation and lower gestational weight gain were observed in GDM groups (ART-GDM and SC-GDM) compared to those of the SC group. ART-GDM group had a higher risk (95% confidence interval) of obstetric complications including PIH [aOR:7.04 (2.24-22.15)], preeclampsia [aOR:7.78 (1.62-37.47)], APH [aOR:3.46 (1.28-9.33)], emergency CS [aOR:2.64 (1.43-4.88)], and perinatal outcomes such as PTB [aOR:3.89 (1.51-10.10)], LBW [aOR:3.11 (1.04-9.30)] and NICU admission [aOR:4.36 (1.82-10.45)], as well as neonatal hypoglycemia [aOR: 4.91 (1.50-16.07)], compared to SC group. SC-GDM group showed a higher risk of PIH [aOR: 4.12 (1.31-12.89)], emergency CS [aOR: 2.01 (1.09-3.73] and LGA [aOR: 5.20 (1.07-25.20)], compared to SC group. Additionally, ART group had a higher risk of PIH [aOR: 3.46(1.02-11.68), preeclampsia 5.29 (1.03-27.09), and NICU admission [aOR: 2.53 (1.05-6.09)] compared to SC. Insulin requirement (41.8% vs. 25.7%) was significantly higher in ART-GDM group compared to SC-GDM group.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that GDM occurring after ART conception increases the risk of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes.
- gestational diabetes mellitus
- assisted reproductive technology