Optical microscopy was used to measure depth-averaged oil distribution in a quasi-monolayer of crushed marble packed in a microfluidic channel as it was displaced by water. By calibrating the transmitted light intensity to oil thickness, we account for depth variation in the fluid distribution. Experiments reveal that oil saturation at water breakthrough decreases with increasing Darcy velocity, UwUw , between capillary numbers Ca=μwUw/σ=9×10−7Ca=μwUw/σ=9×10−7 and 9×10−69×10−6 , where μwμw is the dynamic viscosity of water and σσ is the oil/water interfacial tension, under the conditions considered presently. In contrast, end-point (long-time) remaining oil saturation depends only weakly on UwUw . This transient dependence on velocity is attributed to the competition between precursor film flow, which controls early time invasion dynamics but is inefficient at displacing oil, and piston-like displacement, which controls ultimate oil recovery. These results demonstrate that microfluidic experiments using translucent grains and fluids are a convenient tool for quantitative investigation of sub-resolution liquid/liquid displacement in porous media.
|Journal||Experiments in Fluids|
|Early online date||24 Jan 2018|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 2018|
- film flow
- pore-scale imaging
- multiphase flow
- porous media