Several topology optimization problems are conducted within the ribs and spars of a wing box. It is desired to locate the best position of lightening holes, truss/cross-bracing, etc. A variety of aeroelastic metrics are isolated for each of these problems: elastic wing compliance under trim loads and taxi loads, stress distribution, and crushing loads. Aileron effectiveness under a constant roll rate is considered as are dynamic metrics: natural vibration frequency and flutter. This approach helps uncover the relationship between topology and aeroelasticity in subsonic transport wings and can therefore aid in understanding the complex aircraft design process that must eventually consider all these metrics and load cases simultaneously.
Stanford, B. K., & Dunning, P. D. (2015). Optimal Topology of Aircraft Rib and Spar Structures Under Aeroelastic Loads: Journal of Aircraft. Journal of Aircraft, 52(4), 1298-1311. https://doi.org/10.2514/1.C032913