Overpressure Transmission through Interconnected Igneous Intrusions

Nick Schofield (Corresponding Author), Simon Holford, Alex Edwards, Niall Mark, Stefano Pugliese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In situ overpressures in sedimentary basins are commonly attributed to disequilibrium compaction or fluid expansion mechanisms, though overpressures in shallow sedimentary sequences may also develop by vertical transfer of pressure from deeper basin levels, for example via faults. Mafic sill complexes are common features of sedimentary basins at rifted continental margins, often comprizing networks of interconnected sills and dikes that facilitate the transfer of magma over considerable vertical distances to shallow basinal depths. Here we document evidence for deep sills (depths >5 km (16,000 ft)) hosting permeable, open fracture systems that may have allowed transmission of overpressure from ultra-deep basinal (>7 km (23,000 ft)) levels in the Faroe-Shetland Basin (FSB), NE Atlantic Margin. Most notably, well 214/28-1 encountered overpressured, thin (<8 m (26 ft)) and fractured gas-charged intrusions, which resulted in temporary loss of well control. While the overpressure could reflect local gas generation related to thermal maturation of Cretaceous shales into which the sills were emplaced, this would require the overpressures to have been sustained for unfeasibly long timescales (>58 Myr). We instead suggest that transgressive, interconnected sill complexes, such as those penetrated by well 214/28-1, may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism of transferring overpressures (and indeed hydrocarbons) laterally and vertically from deep to shallow levels in sedimentary basins, and that they represent a potentially under-recognized hazard to both scientific and petroleum drilling in the vicinity of subsurface igneous complexes.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAAPG Bulletin
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2 Apr 2019

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Levees
Petroleum
overpressure
Hydrocarbons
sill
Drilling
Hazards
Compaction
Crude oil
sedimentary basin
Fluids
sedimentary sequence
basin
disequilibrium
dike
continental margin
compaction
magma
petroleum
drilling

Cite this

Schofield, N., Holford, S., Edwards, A., Mark, N., & Pugliese, S. (Accepted/In press). Overpressure Transmission through Interconnected Igneous Intrusions. AAPG Bulletin.

Overpressure Transmission through Interconnected Igneous Intrusions. / Schofield, Nick (Corresponding Author); Holford, Simon; Edwards, Alex; Mark, Niall; Pugliese, Stefano .

In: AAPG Bulletin, 02.04.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schofield, Nick ; Holford, Simon ; Edwards, Alex ; Mark, Niall ; Pugliese, Stefano . / Overpressure Transmission through Interconnected Igneous Intrusions. In: AAPG Bulletin. 2019.
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abstract = "In situ overpressures in sedimentary basins are commonly attributed to disequilibrium compaction or fluid expansion mechanisms, though overpressures in shallow sedimentary sequences may also develop by vertical transfer of pressure from deeper basin levels, for example via faults. Mafic sill complexes are common features of sedimentary basins at rifted continental margins, often comprizing networks of interconnected sills and dikes that facilitate the transfer of magma over considerable vertical distances to shallow basinal depths. Here we document evidence for deep sills (depths >5 km (16,000 ft)) hosting permeable, open fracture systems that may have allowed transmission of overpressure from ultra-deep basinal (>7 km (23,000 ft)) levels in the Faroe-Shetland Basin (FSB), NE Atlantic Margin. Most notably, well 214/28-1 encountered overpressured, thin (<8 m (26 ft)) and fractured gas-charged intrusions, which resulted in temporary loss of well control. While the overpressure could reflect local gas generation related to thermal maturation of Cretaceous shales into which the sills were emplaced, this would require the overpressures to have been sustained for unfeasibly long timescales (>58 Myr). We instead suggest that transgressive, interconnected sill complexes, such as those penetrated by well 214/28-1, may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism of transferring overpressures (and indeed hydrocarbons) laterally and vertically from deep to shallow levels in sedimentary basins, and that they represent a potentially under-recognized hazard to both scientific and petroleum drilling in the vicinity of subsurface igneous complexes.",
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note = "JX Nippon UK Ltd are thanked for PSDM seismic data used in this study. Well data is from the Common Access Database (CDA). IHS Kingdom Software and Schlumberger Petrel Software was used for seismic interpretation. Schlumberger Techlog was used for display of wireline and FMI data. We would like to thank Joe Cartwright, Richard Swarbrick, Clayton Grove and Stephen O’Connor for the constructive and helpful reviews and discussions of this manuscript. PGS are thanked for continued support of the research group at Aberdeen. Barry Katz is thanked for editorial guidance and input.",
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N1 - JX Nippon UK Ltd are thanked for PSDM seismic data used in this study. Well data is from the Common Access Database (CDA). IHS Kingdom Software and Schlumberger Petrel Software was used for seismic interpretation. Schlumberger Techlog was used for display of wireline and FMI data. We would like to thank Joe Cartwright, Richard Swarbrick, Clayton Grove and Stephen O’Connor for the constructive and helpful reviews and discussions of this manuscript. PGS are thanked for continued support of the research group at Aberdeen. Barry Katz is thanked for editorial guidance and input.

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N2 - In situ overpressures in sedimentary basins are commonly attributed to disequilibrium compaction or fluid expansion mechanisms, though overpressures in shallow sedimentary sequences may also develop by vertical transfer of pressure from deeper basin levels, for example via faults. Mafic sill complexes are common features of sedimentary basins at rifted continental margins, often comprizing networks of interconnected sills and dikes that facilitate the transfer of magma over considerable vertical distances to shallow basinal depths. Here we document evidence for deep sills (depths >5 km (16,000 ft)) hosting permeable, open fracture systems that may have allowed transmission of overpressure from ultra-deep basinal (>7 km (23,000 ft)) levels in the Faroe-Shetland Basin (FSB), NE Atlantic Margin. Most notably, well 214/28-1 encountered overpressured, thin (<8 m (26 ft)) and fractured gas-charged intrusions, which resulted in temporary loss of well control. While the overpressure could reflect local gas generation related to thermal maturation of Cretaceous shales into which the sills were emplaced, this would require the overpressures to have been sustained for unfeasibly long timescales (>58 Myr). We instead suggest that transgressive, interconnected sill complexes, such as those penetrated by well 214/28-1, may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism of transferring overpressures (and indeed hydrocarbons) laterally and vertically from deep to shallow levels in sedimentary basins, and that they represent a potentially under-recognized hazard to both scientific and petroleum drilling in the vicinity of subsurface igneous complexes.

AB - In situ overpressures in sedimentary basins are commonly attributed to disequilibrium compaction or fluid expansion mechanisms, though overpressures in shallow sedimentary sequences may also develop by vertical transfer of pressure from deeper basin levels, for example via faults. Mafic sill complexes are common features of sedimentary basins at rifted continental margins, often comprizing networks of interconnected sills and dikes that facilitate the transfer of magma over considerable vertical distances to shallow basinal depths. Here we document evidence for deep sills (depths >5 km (16,000 ft)) hosting permeable, open fracture systems that may have allowed transmission of overpressure from ultra-deep basinal (>7 km (23,000 ft)) levels in the Faroe-Shetland Basin (FSB), NE Atlantic Margin. Most notably, well 214/28-1 encountered overpressured, thin (<8 m (26 ft)) and fractured gas-charged intrusions, which resulted in temporary loss of well control. While the overpressure could reflect local gas generation related to thermal maturation of Cretaceous shales into which the sills were emplaced, this would require the overpressures to have been sustained for unfeasibly long timescales (>58 Myr). We instead suggest that transgressive, interconnected sill complexes, such as those penetrated by well 214/28-1, may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism of transferring overpressures (and indeed hydrocarbons) laterally and vertically from deep to shallow levels in sedimentary basins, and that they represent a potentially under-recognized hazard to both scientific and petroleum drilling in the vicinity of subsurface igneous complexes.

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