Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations

Joshua M. Tybur, Yoel Inbar, Lene Aarøe, Pat Barclay, Fiona Kate Barlowe, Micheal De Barra, D. Vaughn Becker, Leah Borovoi, Incheol Choi, Jong An Choik, Nathan S. Consedine, Alan Conway, Jane Rebecca Conway, Paul Conway, Vera Cubela Adoric, Ekin Demirci, Ana Maria Fernandez, Diogo Conque Seco Ferreira, Keiko Ishii, Ivana Jakšić & 22 others Tingting Ji, Florian van Leeuwen, David M. G. Lewis, Norman P. Li, Jason C. McIntyre, Sumitava Mukherjeez, Justin H. Park, Boguslaw Pawlowski, Michael Bang Petersen, David Pizarro, Gerasimos Prodromitis, Pavol Prokop, Markus J. Rantala, Lisa M. Reynolds, Bonifacio Sandin, Baris Sevi, Delphine de Smet, Narayanan Srinivasan, Shruti Tewari, Cameron Wilson, Jose C. Yong, Iris Žeželj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations these relationships between pathogens and politics. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that the relationships are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups (who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members). Results from a study surveying 11,501 participants across 30 nations are more consistent with the intragroup account than with the intergroup account. National parasite stress relates to traditionalism (an aspect of conservatism especially related to adherence to group norms) but not to social dominance orientation (an aspect of conservatism especially related to endorsements of intergroup barriers and negativity toward ethnic and racial outgroups). Further, individual differences in pathogen-avoidance motives (i.e., disgust sensitivity) relate more strongly to traditionalism than to social dominance orientation within the 30 nations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12408–12413
Number of pages6
JournalPNAS
Volume113
Issue number44
Early online dateOct 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016

Fingerprint

political ideology
conservatism
outgroup
group norm
contagious disease
contact
threat
politics

Keywords

  • political ideology
  • pathogens
  • disgust
  • culture
  • evolutionary psychology

Cite this

Tybur, J. M., Inbar, Y., Aarøe, L., Barclay, P., Barlowe, F. K., De Barra, M., ... Žeželj, I. (2016). Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations. PNAS, 113(44), 12408–12413. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1607398113

Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations. / Tybur, Joshua M. ; Inbar, Yoel ; Aarøe, Lene ; Barclay, Pat; Barlowe, Fiona Kate; De Barra, Micheal; Becker, D. Vaughn ; Borovoi, Leah; Choi, Incheol; Choik, Jong An; Consedine, Nathan S.; Conway, Alan ; Conway, Jane Rebecca; Conway, Paul; Cubela Adoric, Vera; Demirci, Ekin; Fernandez, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Diogo Conque Seco; Ishii, Keiko; Jakšić, Ivana; Ji, Tingting; van Leeuwen, Florian; Lewis, David M. G.; Li, Norman P. ; McIntyre, Jason C. ; Mukherjeez, Sumitava ; Park, Justin H.; Pawlowski, Boguslaw; Petersen, Michael Bang ; Pizarro, David; Prodromitis, Gerasimos ; Prokop, Pavol ; Rantala, Markus J.; Reynolds, Lisa M. ; Sandin, Bonifacio ; Sevi, Baris ; de Smet, Delphine; Srinivasan, Narayanan ; Tewari, Shruti ; Wilson, Cameron; Yong, Jose C. ; Žeželj, Iris .

In: PNAS, Vol. 113, No. 44, 01.11.2016, p. 12408–12413.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tybur, JM, Inbar, Y, Aarøe, L, Barclay, P, Barlowe, FK, De Barra, M, Becker, DV, Borovoi, L, Choi, I, Choik, JA, Consedine, NS, Conway, A, Conway, JR, Conway, P, Cubela Adoric, V, Demirci, E, Fernandez, AM, Ferreira, DCS, Ishii, K, Jakšić, I, Ji, T, van Leeuwen, F, Lewis, DMG, Li, NP, McIntyre, JC, Mukherjeez, S, Park, JH, Pawlowski, B, Petersen, MB, Pizarro, D, Prodromitis, G, Prokop, P, Rantala, MJ, Reynolds, LM, Sandin, B, Sevi, B, de Smet, D, Srinivasan, N, Tewari, S, Wilson, C, Yong, JC & Žeželj, I 2016, 'Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations', PNAS, vol. 113, no. 44, pp. 12408–12413. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1607398113
Tybur JM, Inbar Y, Aarøe L, Barclay P, Barlowe FK, De Barra M et al. Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations. PNAS. 2016 Nov 1;113(44):12408–12413. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1607398113
Tybur, Joshua M. ; Inbar, Yoel ; Aarøe, Lene ; Barclay, Pat ; Barlowe, Fiona Kate ; De Barra, Micheal ; Becker, D. Vaughn ; Borovoi, Leah ; Choi, Incheol ; Choik, Jong An ; Consedine, Nathan S. ; Conway, Alan ; Conway, Jane Rebecca ; Conway, Paul ; Cubela Adoric, Vera ; Demirci, Ekin ; Fernandez, Ana Maria ; Ferreira, Diogo Conque Seco ; Ishii, Keiko ; Jakšić, Ivana ; Ji, Tingting ; van Leeuwen, Florian ; Lewis, David M. G. ; Li, Norman P. ; McIntyre, Jason C. ; Mukherjeez, Sumitava ; Park, Justin H. ; Pawlowski, Boguslaw ; Petersen, Michael Bang ; Pizarro, David ; Prodromitis, Gerasimos ; Prokop, Pavol ; Rantala, Markus J. ; Reynolds, Lisa M. ; Sandin, Bonifacio ; Sevi, Baris ; de Smet, Delphine ; Srinivasan, Narayanan ; Tewari, Shruti ; Wilson, Cameron ; Yong, Jose C. ; Žeželj, Iris . / Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations. In: PNAS. 2016 ; Vol. 113, No. 44. pp. 12408–12413.
@article{1144f5c40e8a48ae93d4065b01e6780a,
title = "Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations",
abstract = "People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations these relationships between pathogens and politics. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that the relationships are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups (who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members). Results from a study surveying 11,501 participants across 30 nations are more consistent with the intragroup account than with the intergroup account. National parasite stress relates to traditionalism (an aspect of conservatism especially related to adherence to group norms) but not to social dominance orientation (an aspect of conservatism especially related to endorsements of intergroup barriers and negativity toward ethnic and racial outgroups). Further, individual differences in pathogen-avoidance motives (i.e., disgust sensitivity) relate more strongly to traditionalism than to social dominance orientation within the 30 nations.",
keywords = "political ideology, pathogens, disgust , culture, evolutionary psychology",
author = "Tybur, {Joshua M.} and Yoel Inbar and Lene Aar{\o}e and Pat Barclay and Barlowe, {Fiona Kate} and {De Barra}, Micheal and Becker, {D. Vaughn} and Leah Borovoi and Incheol Choi and Choik, {Jong An} and Consedine, {Nathan S.} and Alan Conway and Conway, {Jane Rebecca} and Paul Conway and {Cubela Adoric}, Vera and Ekin Demirci and Fernandez, {Ana Maria} and Ferreira, {Diogo Conque Seco} and Keiko Ishii and Ivana Jakšić and Tingting Ji and {van Leeuwen}, Florian and Lewis, {David M. G.} and Li, {Norman P.} and McIntyre, {Jason C.} and Sumitava Mukherjeez and Park, {Justin H.} and Boguslaw Pawlowski and Petersen, {Michael Bang} and David Pizarro and Gerasimos Prodromitis and Pavol Prokop and Rantala, {Markus J.} and Reynolds, {Lisa M.} and Bonifacio Sandin and Baris Sevi and {de Smet}, Delphine and Narayanan Srinivasan and Shruti Tewari and Cameron Wilson and Yong, {Jose C.} and Iris Žeželj",
note = "J.M.T., publication costs, and open access funds are supported by the European Research Council [(ERC) StG-2015 680002-HBIS].",
year = "2016",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1607398113",
language = "English",
volume = "113",
pages = "12408–12413",
journal = "PNAS",
issn = "0027-8424",
publisher = "NATL ACAD SCIENCES",
number = "44",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations

AU - Tybur, Joshua M.

AU - Inbar, Yoel

AU - Aarøe, Lene

AU - Barclay, Pat

AU - Barlowe, Fiona Kate

AU - De Barra, Micheal

AU - Becker, D. Vaughn

AU - Borovoi, Leah

AU - Choi, Incheol

AU - Choik, Jong An

AU - Consedine, Nathan S.

AU - Conway, Alan

AU - Conway, Jane Rebecca

AU - Conway, Paul

AU - Cubela Adoric, Vera

AU - Demirci, Ekin

AU - Fernandez, Ana Maria

AU - Ferreira, Diogo Conque Seco

AU - Ishii, Keiko

AU - Jakšić, Ivana

AU - Ji, Tingting

AU - van Leeuwen, Florian

AU - Lewis, David M. G.

AU - Li, Norman P.

AU - McIntyre, Jason C.

AU - Mukherjeez, Sumitava

AU - Park, Justin H.

AU - Pawlowski, Boguslaw

AU - Petersen, Michael Bang

AU - Pizarro, David

AU - Prodromitis, Gerasimos

AU - Prokop, Pavol

AU - Rantala, Markus J.

AU - Reynolds, Lisa M.

AU - Sandin, Bonifacio

AU - Sevi, Baris

AU - de Smet, Delphine

AU - Srinivasan, Narayanan

AU - Tewari, Shruti

AU - Wilson, Cameron

AU - Yong, Jose C.

AU - Žeželj, Iris

N1 - J.M.T., publication costs, and open access funds are supported by the European Research Council [(ERC) StG-2015 680002-HBIS].

PY - 2016/11/1

Y1 - 2016/11/1

N2 - People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations these relationships between pathogens and politics. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that the relationships are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups (who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members). Results from a study surveying 11,501 participants across 30 nations are more consistent with the intragroup account than with the intergroup account. National parasite stress relates to traditionalism (an aspect of conservatism especially related to adherence to group norms) but not to social dominance orientation (an aspect of conservatism especially related to endorsements of intergroup barriers and negativity toward ethnic and racial outgroups). Further, individual differences in pathogen-avoidance motives (i.e., disgust sensitivity) relate more strongly to traditionalism than to social dominance orientation within the 30 nations.

AB - People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations these relationships between pathogens and politics. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that the relationships are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogen-neutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups (who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members). Results from a study surveying 11,501 participants across 30 nations are more consistent with the intragroup account than with the intergroup account. National parasite stress relates to traditionalism (an aspect of conservatism especially related to adherence to group norms) but not to social dominance orientation (an aspect of conservatism especially related to endorsements of intergroup barriers and negativity toward ethnic and racial outgroups). Further, individual differences in pathogen-avoidance motives (i.e., disgust sensitivity) relate more strongly to traditionalism than to social dominance orientation within the 30 nations.

KW - political ideology

KW - pathogens

KW - disgust

KW - culture

KW - evolutionary psychology

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1607398113

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1607398113

M3 - Article

VL - 113

SP - 12408

EP - 12413

JO - PNAS

JF - PNAS

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 44

ER -