Particulate air pollution and the blood

Anthony Seaton, A Soutar, V Crawford, R Elton, S McNerlan, J Cherrie, M Watt, R Agius, R Stout

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

305 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background-Particulate air pollution has been associated with excess deaths from, and increases in hospital admissions for, cardiovascular disease among older people. A study was undertaken to determine whether this may be a consequence of alterations in the blood, secondary to pulmonary inflammation caused by the action of fine particles on alveolar cells, by repeatedly measuring haematological factors in older people and relating them to measurements of exposure to airborne particles.

Methods-One hundred and twelve individuals aged 60+ years in two UK cities provided repeated blood samples over 18 months, 108 providing the maximum of 12 samples. Estimates of individual exposure to particles of less than 10 mu m diameter (PM10), derived from a mathematical model based on activity diaries and comparative measurements of PM10 at multiple sites and during a variety of activities, were made for each three day period prior to blood sampling. The relationships between blood values and estimates of both personal exposure and city centre measurements of PM10 were investigated by analysis of covariance, adjusting for city, season, temperature, and repeated individual measurements.

Results-Estimated personal exposure to PM10 over the previous three days showed negative correlations with haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), and red blood cell count (p<0.001), and with platelets and factor VII levels (p<0.05). The changes in red eel indices persisted after adjustment for plasma albumin in a sample of 60 of the subjects. City centre PM10 measurements over three days also showed negative correlations with haemoglobin and red cell count (p<0.001) and with PCV and fibrinogen (p<0.05), the relationship with haemoglobin persisting after adjustment for albumin. C reactive protein levels showed a positive association with city centre measurements of PM10 (p<0.01). Based on a linear relationship, the estimated change in haemoglobin associated with an alteration in particle concentration of 100 mu g/m(3) is estimated to have been 0.44 g/dl (95% CI 0.62 to 0.26) for personal PM10 and 0.73 g/dl (95% CI 1.11 to 0.36) for city centre PM10 measurements.

Conclusions-This investigation is the first to estimate personal exposures to PM10 and to demonstrate associations between haematological indices and air pollution. The changes in haemoglobin adjusted for albumin suggest that inhalation of some component of PM10 may cause sequestration of red cells in the circulation. We propose that an action of such particles either on lung endothelial cells or on erythrocytes themselves may be responsible for changing red cell adhesiveness. Peripheral sequestration of red cells offers an explanation for the observed cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1027-1032
Number of pages6
JournalThorax
Volume54
Publication statusPublished - 1999

Keywords

  • air pollution
  • erythrocytes
  • haemoglobin
  • blood coagulation
  • geriatrics
  • cardiovascular disease
  • HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS
  • PLASMA-FIBRINOGEN
  • CELL PARAMETERS
  • LUNG INJURY
  • TIME-SERIES
  • MORTALITY
  • ADHESION
  • ERYTHROCYTES
  • ENDOTHELIUM
  • VOLUME

Cite this

Seaton, A., Soutar, A., Crawford, V., Elton, R., McNerlan, S., Cherrie, J., ... Stout, R. (1999). Particulate air pollution and the blood. Thorax, 54, 1027-1032.

Particulate air pollution and the blood. / Seaton, Anthony; Soutar, A ; Crawford, V ; Elton, R ; McNerlan, S ; Cherrie, J ; Watt, M ; Agius, R ; Stout, R .

In: Thorax, Vol. 54, 1999, p. 1027-1032.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Seaton, A, Soutar, A, Crawford, V, Elton, R, McNerlan, S, Cherrie, J, Watt, M, Agius, R & Stout, R 1999, 'Particulate air pollution and the blood', Thorax, vol. 54, pp. 1027-1032.
Seaton A, Soutar A, Crawford V, Elton R, McNerlan S, Cherrie J et al. Particulate air pollution and the blood. Thorax. 1999;54:1027-1032.
Seaton, Anthony ; Soutar, A ; Crawford, V ; Elton, R ; McNerlan, S ; Cherrie, J ; Watt, M ; Agius, R ; Stout, R . / Particulate air pollution and the blood. In: Thorax. 1999 ; Vol. 54. pp. 1027-1032.
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abstract = "Background-Particulate air pollution has been associated with excess deaths from, and increases in hospital admissions for, cardiovascular disease among older people. A study was undertaken to determine whether this may be a consequence of alterations in the blood, secondary to pulmonary inflammation caused by the action of fine particles on alveolar cells, by repeatedly measuring haematological factors in older people and relating them to measurements of exposure to airborne particles.Methods-One hundred and twelve individuals aged 60+ years in two UK cities provided repeated blood samples over 18 months, 108 providing the maximum of 12 samples. Estimates of individual exposure to particles of less than 10 mu m diameter (PM10), derived from a mathematical model based on activity diaries and comparative measurements of PM10 at multiple sites and during a variety of activities, were made for each three day period prior to blood sampling. The relationships between blood values and estimates of both personal exposure and city centre measurements of PM10 were investigated by analysis of covariance, adjusting for city, season, temperature, and repeated individual measurements.Results-Estimated personal exposure to PM10 over the previous three days showed negative correlations with haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), and red blood cell count (p<0.001), and with platelets and factor VII levels (p<0.05). The changes in red eel indices persisted after adjustment for plasma albumin in a sample of 60 of the subjects. City centre PM10 measurements over three days also showed negative correlations with haemoglobin and red cell count (p<0.001) and with PCV and fibrinogen (p<0.05), the relationship with haemoglobin persisting after adjustment for albumin. C reactive protein levels showed a positive association with city centre measurements of PM10 (p<0.01). Based on a linear relationship, the estimated change in haemoglobin associated with an alteration in particle concentration of 100 mu g/m(3) is estimated to have been 0.44 g/dl (95{\%} CI 0.62 to 0.26) for personal PM10 and 0.73 g/dl (95{\%} CI 1.11 to 0.36) for city centre PM10 measurements.Conclusions-This investigation is the first to estimate personal exposures to PM10 and to demonstrate associations between haematological indices and air pollution. The changes in haemoglobin adjusted for albumin suggest that inhalation of some component of PM10 may cause sequestration of red cells in the circulation. We propose that an action of such particles either on lung endothelial cells or on erythrocytes themselves may be responsible for changing red cell adhesiveness. Peripheral sequestration of red cells offers an explanation for the observed cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution.",
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T1 - Particulate air pollution and the blood

AU - Seaton, Anthony

AU - Soutar, A

AU - Crawford, V

AU - Elton, R

AU - McNerlan, S

AU - Cherrie, J

AU - Watt, M

AU - Agius, R

AU - Stout, R

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - Background-Particulate air pollution has been associated with excess deaths from, and increases in hospital admissions for, cardiovascular disease among older people. A study was undertaken to determine whether this may be a consequence of alterations in the blood, secondary to pulmonary inflammation caused by the action of fine particles on alveolar cells, by repeatedly measuring haematological factors in older people and relating them to measurements of exposure to airborne particles.Methods-One hundred and twelve individuals aged 60+ years in two UK cities provided repeated blood samples over 18 months, 108 providing the maximum of 12 samples. Estimates of individual exposure to particles of less than 10 mu m diameter (PM10), derived from a mathematical model based on activity diaries and comparative measurements of PM10 at multiple sites and during a variety of activities, were made for each three day period prior to blood sampling. The relationships between blood values and estimates of both personal exposure and city centre measurements of PM10 were investigated by analysis of covariance, adjusting for city, season, temperature, and repeated individual measurements.Results-Estimated personal exposure to PM10 over the previous three days showed negative correlations with haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), and red blood cell count (p<0.001), and with platelets and factor VII levels (p<0.05). The changes in red eel indices persisted after adjustment for plasma albumin in a sample of 60 of the subjects. City centre PM10 measurements over three days also showed negative correlations with haemoglobin and red cell count (p<0.001) and with PCV and fibrinogen (p<0.05), the relationship with haemoglobin persisting after adjustment for albumin. C reactive protein levels showed a positive association with city centre measurements of PM10 (p<0.01). Based on a linear relationship, the estimated change in haemoglobin associated with an alteration in particle concentration of 100 mu g/m(3) is estimated to have been 0.44 g/dl (95% CI 0.62 to 0.26) for personal PM10 and 0.73 g/dl (95% CI 1.11 to 0.36) for city centre PM10 measurements.Conclusions-This investigation is the first to estimate personal exposures to PM10 and to demonstrate associations between haematological indices and air pollution. The changes in haemoglobin adjusted for albumin suggest that inhalation of some component of PM10 may cause sequestration of red cells in the circulation. We propose that an action of such particles either on lung endothelial cells or on erythrocytes themselves may be responsible for changing red cell adhesiveness. Peripheral sequestration of red cells offers an explanation for the observed cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution.

AB - Background-Particulate air pollution has been associated with excess deaths from, and increases in hospital admissions for, cardiovascular disease among older people. A study was undertaken to determine whether this may be a consequence of alterations in the blood, secondary to pulmonary inflammation caused by the action of fine particles on alveolar cells, by repeatedly measuring haematological factors in older people and relating them to measurements of exposure to airborne particles.Methods-One hundred and twelve individuals aged 60+ years in two UK cities provided repeated blood samples over 18 months, 108 providing the maximum of 12 samples. Estimates of individual exposure to particles of less than 10 mu m diameter (PM10), derived from a mathematical model based on activity diaries and comparative measurements of PM10 at multiple sites and during a variety of activities, were made for each three day period prior to blood sampling. The relationships between blood values and estimates of both personal exposure and city centre measurements of PM10 were investigated by analysis of covariance, adjusting for city, season, temperature, and repeated individual measurements.Results-Estimated personal exposure to PM10 over the previous three days showed negative correlations with haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), and red blood cell count (p<0.001), and with platelets and factor VII levels (p<0.05). The changes in red eel indices persisted after adjustment for plasma albumin in a sample of 60 of the subjects. City centre PM10 measurements over three days also showed negative correlations with haemoglobin and red cell count (p<0.001) and with PCV and fibrinogen (p<0.05), the relationship with haemoglobin persisting after adjustment for albumin. C reactive protein levels showed a positive association with city centre measurements of PM10 (p<0.01). Based on a linear relationship, the estimated change in haemoglobin associated with an alteration in particle concentration of 100 mu g/m(3) is estimated to have been 0.44 g/dl (95% CI 0.62 to 0.26) for personal PM10 and 0.73 g/dl (95% CI 1.11 to 0.36) for city centre PM10 measurements.Conclusions-This investigation is the first to estimate personal exposures to PM10 and to demonstrate associations between haematological indices and air pollution. The changes in haemoglobin adjusted for albumin suggest that inhalation of some component of PM10 may cause sequestration of red cells in the circulation. We propose that an action of such particles either on lung endothelial cells or on erythrocytes themselves may be responsible for changing red cell adhesiveness. Peripheral sequestration of red cells offers an explanation for the observed cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution.

KW - air pollution

KW - erythrocytes

KW - haemoglobin

KW - blood coagulation

KW - geriatrics

KW - cardiovascular disease

KW - HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS

KW - PLASMA-FIBRINOGEN

KW - CELL PARAMETERS

KW - LUNG INJURY

KW - TIME-SERIES

KW - MORTALITY

KW - ADHESION

KW - ERYTHROCYTES

KW - ENDOTHELIUM

KW - VOLUME

M3 - Article

VL - 54

SP - 1027

EP - 1032

JO - Thorax

JF - Thorax

SN - 0040-6376

ER -