Patterns and Universals of Adult Romantic Attachment Across 62 Cultural Regions: Are Models of Self and of Other Pancultural Constructs?

David P. Schmitt (Corresponding Author), Lidia Alcalay, Melissa Allensworth, Jüri Allik, Lara Ault, Ivars Austers, Kevin L. Bennett, Gabriel Bianchi, Fredrick Boholst, Mary Ann Borg Cunen, Johan Braeckman, Edwin G. Brainerd, Leo Gerard A. Caral, Gabrielle Caron, Maria Martina Casullo, Michael Cunningham, Ikuo Daibo, Charlotte De Backer, Eros De Souza, Rolando Diaz-Loving & 111 others GlÁUcia Diniz, Kevin Durkin, Marcela Echegaray, Ekin Eremsoy, Harald A. Euler, Ruth Falzon, Maryanne L. Fisher, Dolores Foley, Robert Fowler, Douglas P. Fry, Sirpa Fry, M. Arif Ghayur, Vijai N. Giri, Debra L. Golden, Karl Grammer, Liria Grimaldi, Jamin Halberstadt, Shamsul Haque, Dora Herrera, Janine Hertel, Amanda Hitchell, Heather Hoffmann, Danica Hooper, Zuzana Hradilekova, Jasna Hudek-Kene-Evi, Allen Huffcutt, Jas Jaafar, Margarita Jankauskaite, Heidi Kabangu-Stahel, Igor Kardum, Brigitte Khoury, Hayrran Kwon, Kaia Laidra, Anton-Rupert Laireiter, Dustin Lakerveld, Ada Lampert, Maryanne Lauri, Marguerite LavallÉe, Suk-Jae Lee, Luk Chung Leung, Kenneth D. Locke, Vance Locke, Ivan Luksik, Ishmael Magaisa, Dalia Marcinkeviciene, AndrÉ Mata, Rui Mata, Barry Mccarthy, Michael E. Mills, Nhlanhla J. Mkhize, JoÃO Moreira, SÉRgio Moreira, Miguel Moya, M. Munyae, Patricia Noller, Hmoud Olimat, Adrian Opre, Alexia Panayiotou, Nebojsa Petrovic, Karolien Poels, Miroslav Popper, Maria Poulimenou, Volodymyr P'Yatokha, Michel Raymond, Ulf-Dietrich Reips, Susan E. Reneau, Sofia Rivera-Aragon, Wade C. Rowatt, Willibald Ruch, Velko S. Rus, Marilyn P. Safir, Sonia Salas, Fabio Sambataro, Kenneth N. Sandnabba, Rachel Schleeter, Marion K. Schulmeyer, Astrid SchÜTz, Tullio Scrimali, Todd K. Shackelford, Mithila B. Sharan, Phillip R. Shaver, Francis Sichona, Franco Simonetti, Tilahun Sineshaw, R. Sookdew, Tom Speelman, Spyros Spyrou, H. Canan Sümer, Nebi Sümer, Marianna Supekova, Tomasz Szlendak, Robin Taylor, Bert Timmermans, William Tooke, Ioannis Tsaousis, F. S.K. Tungaraza, Ashley Turner, Griet Vandermassen, Tim Vanhoomissen, Frank Van Overwalle, Ine Vanwesenbeeck, Paul L. Vasey, JoÃO Verissimo, Martin Voracek, Wendy W.N. Wan, Ta-Wei Wang, Peter Weiss, Andik Wijaya, Liesbeth Woertman, Gahyun Youn, Agata ZupanÈiÈ

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

173 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completed the Relationship Questionnaire(RQ), a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the Model of Self and the Model of Other scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four-category model of attachment in the same way across all cultures. Analyses of specific attachment styles revealed that secure romantic attachment was normative in 79% of cultures and that preoccupied romantic attachment was particularly prevalent in East Asian cultures. Finally, the romantic attachment profiles of individual nations were correlated with sociocultural indicators in ways that supported evolutionary theories of romantic attachment and basic human mating strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)367-402
Number of pages36
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Volume35
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2004

Fingerprint

Sexuality
questionnaire
Self Report
evolutionary theory
sexuality
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • romantic attachment
  • culture
  • internal working models
  • human mating strategies

Cite this

Patterns and Universals of Adult Romantic Attachment Across 62 Cultural Regions : Are Models of Self and of Other Pancultural Constructs? / Schmitt, David P. (Corresponding Author); Alcalay, Lidia; Allensworth, Melissa; Allik, Jüri; Ault, Lara; Austers, Ivars; Bennett, Kevin L.; Bianchi, Gabriel; Boholst, Fredrick; Cunen, Mary Ann Borg; Braeckman, Johan; Brainerd, Edwin G.; Caral, Leo Gerard A.; Caron, Gabrielle; Casullo, Maria Martina; Cunningham, Michael; Daibo, Ikuo; De Backer, Charlotte; De Souza, Eros; Diaz-Loving, Rolando; Diniz, GlÁUcia; Durkin, Kevin; Echegaray, Marcela; Eremsoy, Ekin; Euler, Harald A.; Falzon, Ruth; Fisher, Maryanne L.; Foley, Dolores; Fowler, Robert; Fry, Douglas P.; Fry, Sirpa; Ghayur, M. Arif; Giri, Vijai N.; Golden, Debra L.; Grammer, Karl; Grimaldi, Liria; Halberstadt, Jamin; Haque, Shamsul; Herrera, Dora; Hertel, Janine; Hitchell, Amanda; Hoffmann, Heather; Hooper, Danica; Hradilekova, Zuzana; Hudek-Kene-Evi, Jasna; Huffcutt, Allen; Jaafar, Jas; Jankauskaite, Margarita; Kabangu-Stahel, Heidi; Kardum, Igor; Khoury, Brigitte; Kwon, Hayrran; Laidra, Kaia; Laireiter, Anton-Rupert; Lakerveld, Dustin; Lampert, Ada; Lauri, Maryanne; LavallÉe, Marguerite; Lee, Suk-Jae; Leung, Luk Chung; Locke, Kenneth D.; Locke, Vance; Luksik, Ivan; Magaisa, Ishmael; Marcinkeviciene, Dalia; Mata, AndrÉ; Mata, Rui; Mccarthy, Barry; Mills, Michael E.; Mkhize, Nhlanhla J.; Moreira, JoÃO; Moreira, SÉRgio; Moya, Miguel; Munyae, M.; Noller, Patricia; Olimat, Hmoud; Opre, Adrian; Panayiotou, Alexia; Petrovic, Nebojsa; Poels, Karolien; Popper, Miroslav; Poulimenou, Maria; P'Yatokha, Volodymyr; Raymond, Michel; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Reneau, Susan E.; Rivera-Aragon, Sofia; Rowatt, Wade C.; Ruch, Willibald; Rus, Velko S.; Safir, Marilyn P.; Salas, Sonia; Sambataro, Fabio; Sandnabba, Kenneth N.; Schleeter, Rachel; Schulmeyer, Marion K.; SchÜTz, Astrid; Scrimali, Tullio; Shackelford, Todd K.; Sharan, Mithila B.; Shaver, Phillip R.; Sichona, Francis; Simonetti, Franco; Sineshaw, Tilahun; Sookdew, R.; Speelman, Tom; Spyrou, Spyros; Sümer, H. Canan; Sümer, Nebi; Supekova, Marianna; Szlendak, Tomasz; Taylor, Robin; Timmermans, Bert; Tooke, William; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Tungaraza, F. S.K.; Turner, Ashley; Vandermassen, Griet; Vanhoomissen, Tim; Van Overwalle, Frank; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Vasey, Paul L.; Verissimo, JoÃO; Voracek, Martin; Wan, Wendy W.N.; Wang, Ta-Wei; Weiss, Peter; Wijaya, Andik; Woertman, Liesbeth; Youn, Gahyun; ZupanÈiÈ, Agata.

In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 35, No. 4, 01.07.2004, p. 367-402.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schmitt, DP, Alcalay, L, Allensworth, M, Allik, J, Ault, L, Austers, I, Bennett, KL, Bianchi, G, Boholst, F, Cunen, MAB, Braeckman, J, Brainerd, EG, Caral, LGA, Caron, G, Casullo, MM, Cunningham, M, Daibo, I, De Backer, C, De Souza, E, Diaz-Loving, R, Diniz, GU, Durkin, K, Echegaray, M, Eremsoy, E, Euler, HA, Falzon, R, Fisher, ML, Foley, D, Fowler, R, Fry, DP, Fry, S, Ghayur, MA, Giri, VN, Golden, DL, Grammer, K, Grimaldi, L, Halberstadt, J, Haque, S, Herrera, D, Hertel, J, Hitchell, A, Hoffmann, H, Hooper, D, Hradilekova, Z, Hudek-Kene-Evi, J, Huffcutt, A, Jaafar, J, Jankauskaite, M, Kabangu-Stahel, H, Kardum, I, Khoury, B, Kwon, H, Laidra, K, Laireiter, A-R, Lakerveld, D, Lampert, A, Lauri, M, LavallÉe, M, Lee, S-J, Leung, LC, Locke, KD, Locke, V, Luksik, I, Magaisa, I, Marcinkeviciene, D, Mata, A, Mata, R, Mccarthy, B, Mills, ME, Mkhize, NJ, Moreira, JO, Moreira, SÉR, Moya, M, Munyae, M, Noller, P, Olimat, H, Opre, A, Panayiotou, A, Petrovic, N, Poels, K, Popper, M, Poulimenou, M, P'Yatokha, V, Raymond, M, Reips, U-D, Reneau, SE, Rivera-Aragon, S, Rowatt, WC, Ruch, W, Rus, VS, Safir, MP, Salas, S, Sambataro, F, Sandnabba, KN, Schleeter, R, Schulmeyer, MK, SchÜTz, A, Scrimali, T, Shackelford, TK, Sharan, MB, Shaver, PR, Sichona, F, Simonetti, F, Sineshaw, T, Sookdew, R, Speelman, T, Spyrou, S, Sümer, HC, Sümer, N, Supekova, M, Szlendak, T, Taylor, R, Timmermans, B, Tooke, W, Tsaousis, I, Tungaraza, FSK, Turner, A, Vandermassen, G, Vanhoomissen, T, Van Overwalle, F, Vanwesenbeeck, I, Vasey, PL, Verissimo, JO, Voracek, M, Wan, WWN, Wang, T-W, Weiss, P, Wijaya, A, Woertman, L, Youn, G & ZupanÈiÈ, A 2004, 'Patterns and Universals of Adult Romantic Attachment Across 62 Cultural Regions: Are Models of Self and of Other Pancultural Constructs?' Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 367-402. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022104266105
Schmitt, David P. ; Alcalay, Lidia ; Allensworth, Melissa ; Allik, Jüri ; Ault, Lara ; Austers, Ivars ; Bennett, Kevin L. ; Bianchi, Gabriel ; Boholst, Fredrick ; Cunen, Mary Ann Borg ; Braeckman, Johan ; Brainerd, Edwin G. ; Caral, Leo Gerard A. ; Caron, Gabrielle ; Casullo, Maria Martina ; Cunningham, Michael ; Daibo, Ikuo ; De Backer, Charlotte ; De Souza, Eros ; Diaz-Loving, Rolando ; Diniz, GlÁUcia ; Durkin, Kevin ; Echegaray, Marcela ; Eremsoy, Ekin ; Euler, Harald A. ; Falzon, Ruth ; Fisher, Maryanne L. ; Foley, Dolores ; Fowler, Robert ; Fry, Douglas P. ; Fry, Sirpa ; Ghayur, M. Arif ; Giri, Vijai N. ; Golden, Debra L. ; Grammer, Karl ; Grimaldi, Liria ; Halberstadt, Jamin ; Haque, Shamsul ; Herrera, Dora ; Hertel, Janine ; Hitchell, Amanda ; Hoffmann, Heather ; Hooper, Danica ; Hradilekova, Zuzana ; Hudek-Kene-Evi, Jasna ; Huffcutt, Allen ; Jaafar, Jas ; Jankauskaite, Margarita ; Kabangu-Stahel, Heidi ; Kardum, Igor ; Khoury, Brigitte ; Kwon, Hayrran ; Laidra, Kaia ; Laireiter, Anton-Rupert ; Lakerveld, Dustin ; Lampert, Ada ; Lauri, Maryanne ; LavallÉe, Marguerite ; Lee, Suk-Jae ; Leung, Luk Chung ; Locke, Kenneth D. ; Locke, Vance ; Luksik, Ivan ; Magaisa, Ishmael ; Marcinkeviciene, Dalia ; Mata, AndrÉ ; Mata, Rui ; Mccarthy, Barry ; Mills, Michael E. ; Mkhize, Nhlanhla J. ; Moreira, JoÃO ; Moreira, SÉRgio ; Moya, Miguel ; Munyae, M. ; Noller, Patricia ; Olimat, Hmoud ; Opre, Adrian ; Panayiotou, Alexia ; Petrovic, Nebojsa ; Poels, Karolien ; Popper, Miroslav ; Poulimenou, Maria ; P'Yatokha, Volodymyr ; Raymond, Michel ; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich ; Reneau, Susan E. ; Rivera-Aragon, Sofia ; Rowatt, Wade C. ; Ruch, Willibald ; Rus, Velko S. ; Safir, Marilyn P. ; Salas, Sonia ; Sambataro, Fabio ; Sandnabba, Kenneth N. ; Schleeter, Rachel ; Schulmeyer, Marion K. ; SchÜTz, Astrid ; Scrimali, Tullio ; Shackelford, Todd K. ; Sharan, Mithila B. ; Shaver, Phillip R. ; Sichona, Francis ; Simonetti, Franco ; Sineshaw, Tilahun ; Sookdew, R. ; Speelman, Tom ; Spyrou, Spyros ; Sümer, H. Canan ; Sümer, Nebi ; Supekova, Marianna ; Szlendak, Tomasz ; Taylor, Robin ; Timmermans, Bert ; Tooke, William ; Tsaousis, Ioannis ; Tungaraza, F. S.K. ; Turner, Ashley ; Vandermassen, Griet ; Vanhoomissen, Tim ; Van Overwalle, Frank ; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine ; Vasey, Paul L. ; Verissimo, JoÃO ; Voracek, Martin ; Wan, Wendy W.N. ; Wang, Ta-Wei ; Weiss, Peter ; Wijaya, Andik ; Woertman, Liesbeth ; Youn, Gahyun ; ZupanÈiÈ, Agata. / Patterns and Universals of Adult Romantic Attachment Across 62 Cultural Regions : Are Models of Self and of Other Pancultural Constructs?. In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2004 ; Vol. 35, No. 4. pp. 367-402.
@article{514aee7f2c6d40f7a2dcc5babba3bb31,
title = "Patterns and Universals of Adult Romantic Attachment Across 62 Cultural Regions: Are Models of Self and of Other Pancultural Constructs?",
abstract = "As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completed the Relationship Questionnaire(RQ), a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the Model of Self and the Model of Other scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four-category model of attachment in the same way across all cultures. Analyses of specific attachment styles revealed that secure romantic attachment was normative in 79{\%} of cultures and that preoccupied romantic attachment was particularly prevalent in East Asian cultures. Finally, the romantic attachment profiles of individual nations were correlated with sociocultural indicators in ways that supported evolutionary theories of romantic attachment and basic human mating strategies.",
keywords = "romantic attachment, culture, internal working models, human mating strategies",
author = "Schmitt, {David P.} and Lidia Alcalay and Melissa Allensworth and J{\"u}ri Allik and Lara Ault and Ivars Austers and Bennett, {Kevin L.} and Gabriel Bianchi and Fredrick Boholst and Cunen, {Mary Ann Borg} and Johan Braeckman and Brainerd, {Edwin G.} and Caral, {Leo Gerard A.} and Gabrielle Caron and Casullo, {Maria Martina} and Michael Cunningham and Ikuo Daibo and {De Backer}, Charlotte and {De Souza}, Eros and Rolando Diaz-Loving and Gl{\'A}Ucia Diniz and Kevin Durkin and Marcela Echegaray and Ekin Eremsoy and Euler, {Harald A.} and Ruth Falzon and Fisher, {Maryanne L.} and Dolores Foley and Robert Fowler and Fry, {Douglas P.} and Sirpa Fry and Ghayur, {M. Arif} and Giri, {Vijai N.} and Golden, {Debra L.} and Karl Grammer and Liria Grimaldi and Jamin Halberstadt and Shamsul Haque and Dora Herrera and Janine Hertel and Amanda Hitchell and Heather Hoffmann and Danica Hooper and Zuzana Hradilekova and Jasna Hudek-Kene-Evi and Allen Huffcutt and Jas Jaafar and Margarita Jankauskaite and Heidi Kabangu-Stahel and Igor Kardum and Brigitte Khoury and Hayrran Kwon and Kaia Laidra and Anton-Rupert Laireiter and Dustin Lakerveld and Ada Lampert and Maryanne Lauri and Marguerite Lavall{\'E}e and Suk-Jae Lee and Leung, {Luk Chung} and Locke, {Kenneth D.} and Vance Locke and Ivan Luksik and Ishmael Magaisa and Dalia Marcinkeviciene and Andr{\'E} Mata and Rui Mata and Barry Mccarthy and Mills, {Michael E.} and Mkhize, {Nhlanhla J.} and Jo{\~A}O Moreira and S{\'E}Rgio Moreira and Miguel Moya and M. Munyae and Patricia Noller and Hmoud Olimat and Adrian Opre and Alexia Panayiotou and Nebojsa Petrovic and Karolien Poels and Miroslav Popper and Maria Poulimenou and Volodymyr P'Yatokha and Michel Raymond and Ulf-Dietrich Reips and Reneau, {Susan E.} and Sofia Rivera-Aragon and Rowatt, {Wade C.} and Willibald Ruch and Rus, {Velko S.} and Safir, {Marilyn P.} and Sonia Salas and Fabio Sambataro and Sandnabba, {Kenneth N.} and Rachel Schleeter and Schulmeyer, {Marion K.} and Astrid Sch{\"U}Tz and Tullio Scrimali and Shackelford, {Todd K.} and Sharan, {Mithila B.} and Shaver, {Phillip R.} and Francis Sichona and Franco Simonetti and Tilahun Sineshaw and R. Sookdew and Tom Speelman and Spyros Spyrou and S{\"u}mer, {H. Canan} and Nebi S{\"u}mer and Marianna Supekova and Tomasz Szlendak and Robin Taylor and Bert Timmermans and William Tooke and Ioannis Tsaousis and Tungaraza, {F. S.K.} and Ashley Turner and Griet Vandermassen and Tim Vanhoomissen and {Van Overwalle}, Frank and Ine Vanwesenbeeck and Vasey, {Paul L.} and Jo{\~A}O Verissimo and Martin Voracek and Wan, {Wendy W.N.} and Ta-Wei Wang and Peter Weiss and Andik Wijaya and Liesbeth Woertman and Gahyun Youn and Agata Zupan{\`E}i{\`E}",
note = "The authors would like to thank Del Paulhus (Canada-English), Susan Sprecher (USA-Midwest), Glenn D. Wilson (England), Qazi Rahman (England), Alois Angleitner (Germany), Angelika Hofhansl (Austria), Tamio Imagawa (Japan), Minoru Wada (Japan), Junichi Taniguchi (Japan), and Yuji Kanemasa (Japan) for helping with data collection and contributing significantly to the samples used in this study. Except for the first author, all authors contributed equally to this article and were listed alphabetically.",
year = "2004",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0022022104266105",
language = "English",
volume = "35",
pages = "367--402",
journal = "Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology",
issn = "0022-0221",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Patterns and Universals of Adult Romantic Attachment Across 62 Cultural Regions

T2 - Are Models of Self and of Other Pancultural Constructs?

AU - Schmitt, David P.

AU - Alcalay, Lidia

AU - Allensworth, Melissa

AU - Allik, Jüri

AU - Ault, Lara

AU - Austers, Ivars

AU - Bennett, Kevin L.

AU - Bianchi, Gabriel

AU - Boholst, Fredrick

AU - Cunen, Mary Ann Borg

AU - Braeckman, Johan

AU - Brainerd, Edwin G.

AU - Caral, Leo Gerard A.

AU - Caron, Gabrielle

AU - Casullo, Maria Martina

AU - Cunningham, Michael

AU - Daibo, Ikuo

AU - De Backer, Charlotte

AU - De Souza, Eros

AU - Diaz-Loving, Rolando

AU - Diniz, GlÁUcia

AU - Durkin, Kevin

AU - Echegaray, Marcela

AU - Eremsoy, Ekin

AU - Euler, Harald A.

AU - Falzon, Ruth

AU - Fisher, Maryanne L.

AU - Foley, Dolores

AU - Fowler, Robert

AU - Fry, Douglas P.

AU - Fry, Sirpa

AU - Ghayur, M. Arif

AU - Giri, Vijai N.

AU - Golden, Debra L.

AU - Grammer, Karl

AU - Grimaldi, Liria

AU - Halberstadt, Jamin

AU - Haque, Shamsul

AU - Herrera, Dora

AU - Hertel, Janine

AU - Hitchell, Amanda

AU - Hoffmann, Heather

AU - Hooper, Danica

AU - Hradilekova, Zuzana

AU - Hudek-Kene-Evi, Jasna

AU - Huffcutt, Allen

AU - Jaafar, Jas

AU - Jankauskaite, Margarita

AU - Kabangu-Stahel, Heidi

AU - Kardum, Igor

AU - Khoury, Brigitte

AU - Kwon, Hayrran

AU - Laidra, Kaia

AU - Laireiter, Anton-Rupert

AU - Lakerveld, Dustin

AU - Lampert, Ada

AU - Lauri, Maryanne

AU - LavallÉe, Marguerite

AU - Lee, Suk-Jae

AU - Leung, Luk Chung

AU - Locke, Kenneth D.

AU - Locke, Vance

AU - Luksik, Ivan

AU - Magaisa, Ishmael

AU - Marcinkeviciene, Dalia

AU - Mata, AndrÉ

AU - Mata, Rui

AU - Mccarthy, Barry

AU - Mills, Michael E.

AU - Mkhize, Nhlanhla J.

AU - Moreira, JoÃO

AU - Moreira, SÉRgio

AU - Moya, Miguel

AU - Munyae, M.

AU - Noller, Patricia

AU - Olimat, Hmoud

AU - Opre, Adrian

AU - Panayiotou, Alexia

AU - Petrovic, Nebojsa

AU - Poels, Karolien

AU - Popper, Miroslav

AU - Poulimenou, Maria

AU - P'Yatokha, Volodymyr

AU - Raymond, Michel

AU - Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

AU - Reneau, Susan E.

AU - Rivera-Aragon, Sofia

AU - Rowatt, Wade C.

AU - Ruch, Willibald

AU - Rus, Velko S.

AU - Safir, Marilyn P.

AU - Salas, Sonia

AU - Sambataro, Fabio

AU - Sandnabba, Kenneth N.

AU - Schleeter, Rachel

AU - Schulmeyer, Marion K.

AU - SchÜTz, Astrid

AU - Scrimali, Tullio

AU - Shackelford, Todd K.

AU - Sharan, Mithila B.

AU - Shaver, Phillip R.

AU - Sichona, Francis

AU - Simonetti, Franco

AU - Sineshaw, Tilahun

AU - Sookdew, R.

AU - Speelman, Tom

AU - Spyrou, Spyros

AU - Sümer, H. Canan

AU - Sümer, Nebi

AU - Supekova, Marianna

AU - Szlendak, Tomasz

AU - Taylor, Robin

AU - Timmermans, Bert

AU - Tooke, William

AU - Tsaousis, Ioannis

AU - Tungaraza, F. S.K.

AU - Turner, Ashley

AU - Vandermassen, Griet

AU - Vanhoomissen, Tim

AU - Van Overwalle, Frank

AU - Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

AU - Vasey, Paul L.

AU - Verissimo, JoÃO

AU - Voracek, Martin

AU - Wan, Wendy W.N.

AU - Wang, Ta-Wei

AU - Weiss, Peter

AU - Wijaya, Andik

AU - Woertman, Liesbeth

AU - Youn, Gahyun

AU - ZupanÈiÈ, Agata

N1 - The authors would like to thank Del Paulhus (Canada-English), Susan Sprecher (USA-Midwest), Glenn D. Wilson (England), Qazi Rahman (England), Alois Angleitner (Germany), Angelika Hofhansl (Austria), Tamio Imagawa (Japan), Minoru Wada (Japan), Junichi Taniguchi (Japan), and Yuji Kanemasa (Japan) for helping with data collection and contributing significantly to the samples used in this study. Except for the first author, all authors contributed equally to this article and were listed alphabetically.

PY - 2004/7/1

Y1 - 2004/7/1

N2 - As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completed the Relationship Questionnaire(RQ), a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the Model of Self and the Model of Other scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four-category model of attachment in the same way across all cultures. Analyses of specific attachment styles revealed that secure romantic attachment was normative in 79% of cultures and that preoccupied romantic attachment was particularly prevalent in East Asian cultures. Finally, the romantic attachment profiles of individual nations were correlated with sociocultural indicators in ways that supported evolutionary theories of romantic attachment and basic human mating strategies.

AB - As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completed the Relationship Questionnaire(RQ), a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the Model of Self and the Model of Other scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four-category model of attachment in the same way across all cultures. Analyses of specific attachment styles revealed that secure romantic attachment was normative in 79% of cultures and that preoccupied romantic attachment was particularly prevalent in East Asian cultures. Finally, the romantic attachment profiles of individual nations were correlated with sociocultural indicators in ways that supported evolutionary theories of romantic attachment and basic human mating strategies.

KW - romantic attachment

KW - culture

KW - internal working models

KW - human mating strategies

U2 - 10.1177/0022022104266105

DO - 10.1177/0022022104266105

M3 - Article

VL - 35

SP - 367

EP - 402

JO - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

JF - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

SN - 0022-0221

IS - 4

ER -