Percentile norms and accompanying interval estimates from an Australian general adult population sample for self-report mood scales (BAI, BDI, CRSD, CES-D, DASS, DASS-21, STAI-X, STAI-Y, SRDS, and SRAS)

John Robertson Crawford, Carol Cayley, Peter H. Wilson, Peter H. Lovibond, Carloine Hartley

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Despite their widespread use, many self-report mood scales have very limited normative data. To rectify this, Crawford et al. have recently provided percentile norms for a series of self-report scales. The present study aimed to extend the work of Crawford et al. by providing percentile norms for additional mood scales based on samples drawn from the general Australian adult population. Participants completed a series of self-report mood scales. The resultant normative data were incorporated into a computer programme that provides point and interval estimates of the percentile ranks corresponding to raw scores for each of the scales. The programme can be used to obtain point and interval estimates of the percentile ranks of an individual's raw scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Carroll Rating Scale for Depression, the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Rating Scale for Depression, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS), the short-form version of the DASS (DASS-21), the Self-rating Scale for Anxiety, the Self-rating Scale for Depression, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), form X, and the STAI, form Y, based on normative sample sizes ranging from 497 to 769. The interval estimates can be obtained using either classical or Bayesian methods as preferred. The programme (which can be downloaded at provides a convenient and reliable means of obtaining the percentile ranks of individuals' raw scores on self-report mood scales.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-14
Number of pages12
JournalAustralian Psychologist
Issue number1
Early online date25 Feb 2011
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011



  • anxiety
  • Bayesian methods
  • computer scoring
  • depression
  • interval estimates
  • percentile norms
  • self-report scales

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