Perinatal factors associate with vertebral size and shape but not lumbar lordosis in 10-year-old children

Anastasia Pavlova, Janet E. Jeffrey, Rebecca J. Barr, Richard M. Aspden (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The intrauterine environment is known to influence foetal development and future health. Low birthweight has been linked to smaller vertebral canals in children and decreased adulthood spine bone mineral content. Perinatal factors affecting lumbar spine curvature have not yet been considered but could be important for adult spinal health, as lumbar movement during lifting, a risk factor for backpain, is associated with lordosis. To investigate this, lumbar spine magnetic resonance images at age 10 years and perinatal and maternal data (birthweight, placental weight, gestation length, crown‐heel length, maternal age, height, weight and smoking status) from 161 children born in Aberdeen in 1988–1989 were acquired. Statistical shape modelling, using principal component analysis, quantified variations in lumbar spine shape and resulting modes of variation were assessed in combination with perinatal data using correlations and analyses of covariance, adjusted for potential confounders. Spine modes 1–3 (SM1–SM3) captured 75% of the variation in lumbar spine shape. The first and third modes described the total amount (SM1) and evenness of curvature distribution (SM3). SM2 accounted for variations in antero‐posterior vertebral diameter relative to vertebral height, increasing positive scores representing a larger relative diameter. Adjusting for gestation length and sex, SM2 positively correlated with birthweight (= 0.25, < 0.01), placental weight (= 0.20, = 0.04), crown‐heel length (= 0.36, < 0.001) and maternal weight (= 0.19, = 0.04), and negatively with maternal age (= −0.22, = 0.02). SM2 scores were lower in girls (< 0.001) and in the low birthweight group (= 0.02). There were no significant differences in SM1 and SM3 scores between birthweight groups, boys and girls or children of smokers (31%) and non‐smokers (69%). In conclusion, some perinatal factors were associated with vertebral body morphology but had little effect on lumbar curvature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)749-756
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Anatomy
Volume235
Issue number4
Early online date20 Jun 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

Fingerprint

lumbar spine
Lordosis
Spine
birth weight
curvature
low birth weight
spine (bones)
lifting (movement)
pregnancy
Weights and Measures
Maternal Age
fetal development
smoking
adulthood
risk factor
Mothers
mineral content
canal
bone
Pregnancy

Keywords

  • lumbar spine
  • perinatal factors
  • antenatal
  • lordosis
  • statistical shape modelling
  • SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT
  • HIP
  • BALANCE
  • SPINAL CURVATURE
  • FRACTURE
  • MODELS
  • DISC DEGENERATION
  • MORPHOLOGY

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Anatomy
  • Cell Biology
  • Histology
  • Developmental Biology

Cite this

Perinatal factors associate with vertebral size and shape but not lumbar lordosis in 10-year-old children. / Pavlova, Anastasia; Jeffrey, Janet E.; Barr, Rebecca J.; Aspden, Richard M. (Corresponding Author).

In: Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 235, No. 4, 10.2019, p. 749-756.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pavlova, Anastasia ; Jeffrey, Janet E. ; Barr, Rebecca J. ; Aspden, Richard M. / Perinatal factors associate with vertebral size and shape but not lumbar lordosis in 10-year-old children. In: Journal of Anatomy. 2019 ; Vol. 235, No. 4. pp. 749-756.
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N1 - Acknowledgements Ethical approval for this study was granted by the North of Scotland Research Ethics Committees (13/NS/0162). We would like to thank the authors and radiographers and participants involved in the original study from which MR images and data were used. We thank Dr Onyedikachi Eseonu for his contribution to data generation and marking up spinal images. AVP was supported by a PhD studentship kindly donated by Roemex Ltd. to the Aberdeen Centre of the Oliver Bird Rheumatism Programme at the Nuffield Foundation. The funders played no part in the design, execution or publication of this study and the authors have no interests to declare

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N2 - The intrauterine environment is known to influence foetal development and future health. Low birthweight has been linked to smaller vertebral canals in children and decreased adulthood spine bone mineral content. Perinatal factors affecting lumbar spine curvature have not yet been considered but could be important for adult spinal health, as lumbar movement during lifting, a risk factor for backpain, is associated with lordosis. To investigate this, lumbar spine magnetic resonance images at age 10 years and perinatal and maternal data (birthweight, placental weight, gestation length, crown‐heel length, maternal age, height, weight and smoking status) from 161 children born in Aberdeen in 1988–1989 were acquired. Statistical shape modelling, using principal component analysis, quantified variations in lumbar spine shape and resulting modes of variation were assessed in combination with perinatal data using correlations and analyses of covariance, adjusted for potential confounders. Spine modes 1–3 (SM1–SM3) captured 75% of the variation in lumbar spine shape. The first and third modes described the total amount (SM1) and evenness of curvature distribution (SM3). SM2 accounted for variations in antero‐posterior vertebral diameter relative to vertebral height, increasing positive scores representing a larger relative diameter. Adjusting for gestation length and sex, SM2 positively correlated with birthweight (r = 0.25, P < 0.01), placental weight (r = 0.20, P = 0.04), crown‐heel length (r = 0.36, P < 0.001) and maternal weight (r = 0.19, P = 0.04), and negatively with maternal age (r = −0.22, P = 0.02). SM2 scores were lower in girls (P < 0.001) and in the low birthweight group (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in SM1 and SM3 scores between birthweight groups, boys and girls or children of smokers (31%) and non‐smokers (69%). In conclusion, some perinatal factors were associated with vertebral body morphology but had little effect on lumbar curvature.

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KW - HIP

KW - BALANCE

KW - SPINAL CURVATURE

KW - FRACTURE

KW - MODELS

KW - DISC DEGENERATION

KW - MORPHOLOGY

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