Genetic variation contributes to an individual's sensitivity and response to a variety of drugs important to anesthetic practice. Early insights into the clinical impact of pharmacogenetics were provided by anesthesiology - investigations into prolonged apnea after succinylcholine administration, thiopental-induced porphyria and malignant hyperthermia contributed to the novel science of pharmacogenetics in the early 1960s. Genetic polymorphisms involved in pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs) and pharmacodynamics (receptors, ion channels and enzymes) can affect an individual's response to the drugs used in anesthetic practice. In addition, genetic variation in proteins directly unrelated to drug action or metabolism can influence responses to environmental changes that occur during anesthesia. This review will summarize the current knowledge of genetic variation in response to drugs relevant to anesthesia, and how this impacts upon clinical practice.
- OPIOID RECEPTOR GENE
- MORPHINE REQUIREMENTS