The photo-catalytic production of hydrogen from liquid ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel, over Rh/TiO2, Pd/TiO2 and Pt/TiO2, anatase, has been studied. In the absence of the metal, TiO2 shows negligible production of molecular hydrogen. The addition of Pd or Pt dramatically increases the production of hydrogen and a quantum yield of about 10% is reached at 350 K. On the contrary, the Rh doped TiO2 is far less active. The low activity of Rh compared to that of Pd and Pt is not due to poor dispersion or low available Rh sites on the surface, as analyzed by XPS and TEM. For all three catalysts, TEM shows most particles with a size less than 10 nm. XPS results show that while the state of Pd and Pt particles in the as prepared catalysts was mostly metallic that of the Rh was composed of non-negligible contribution of Rh cations. The extent of reaction of a series of alcohols was also studied, for comparison, on Pt/TiO2. It was found that the reaction is governed by the solvation of the alcohol. In that regard, the production of molecular hydrogen over Pt/TiO2 showed the following trend: methanol approximate to ethanol > propanol approximate to isopropanol > n-butanol. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- photo-catalytic reactions of ethanol
- quantum yield
- carbon-carbon bond
- partial oxidation