Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in island southeast Asia and Oceania

Greger Larson, Thomas Cucchi, Masakatsu Fujita, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith, Judith Robins, Atholl Anderson, Barry Rolett, Matthew Spriggs, Gaynor Dolman, Tae-Hun Kim, Nguyen Thi Dieu Thuy, Ettore Randi, Moira Doherty, Rokus Awe Due, Robert Bollt, Tony Djubiantono, Bion Griffin, Michiko Intoh, Emile Keane, Patrick KirchKuang-Ti Li, Michael Morwood, Lolita M. Pedrina, Philip J. Piper, Ryan J. Rabett, Peter Shooter, Gert Van den Bergh, Eric West, Stephen Wickler, Jing Yuan, Alan Cooper, Keith Dobney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

224 Citations (Scopus)


Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called "wild" pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4834-4839
Number of pages6
Issue number12
Early online date14 Mar 2007
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2007


  • domestication
  • mtDNA
  • Pacific colonization
  • phylogeography
  • Eastern Indonesia
  • mitochondrial-DNA
  • pigs
  • origins
  • Taiwan
  • shape


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