Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18-25 year olds

a mixed method study

Amudha S Poobalan, Lorna S Aucott, Amanda Clarke, W Cairns S Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Citations (Scopus)
6 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background
Young people (18--25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) behaviour among 18--25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers.
Methods
An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at university/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial self reported quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted. 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Results from this were incorporated into a qualitative phase also grounded in these theories. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. 'Framework Analysis' was used to analyse the focus groups.
Results
Only 28 % of 18--25 year olds achieved recommended levels of PA which decreased with age. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22 %, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes toward PA were strong predictors of physical activity associated with being physically active and less sedentary. However, strong intentions to do exercise, was not associated with actual behaviour. Interactive discussions through focus groups unravelled attitudes and barriers influencing PA behaviour. Doing PA to feel good and to enjoy themselves was more important for young people than the common assumptions of 'winning' and 'pleasing others'. Further this age group saw traditional health promotion messages as 'empty' and 'fear of their future health' was not a motivating factor to change current behaviour.
Conclusion
18--25 year olds are a difficult group to reach and have low levels of PA. Factors such as, 'enjoyment', 'appearance 'and 'feeling good' were deemed important by this specific age group. A targeted intervention incorporating these crucial elements should be developed to improve and sustain PA levels.
Original languageEnglish
Article number640
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Aug 2012

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Exercise
Focus Groups
Age Groups
Obesity
Education
Ego
Health Behavior
Health Promotion
Social Class
Weight Gain
Fear
Emotions
Health

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • young people
  • 18–25 year olds
  • mixed methods
  • obesity
  • transition

Cite this

Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18-25 year olds : a mixed method study. / Poobalan, Amudha S; Aucott, Lorna S; Clarke, Amanda; Smith, W Cairns S.

In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 12, 640, 10.08.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18-25 year olds: a mixed method study",
abstract = "Background Young people (18--25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) behaviour among 18--25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at university/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial self reported quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted. 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Results from this were incorporated into a qualitative phase also grounded in these theories. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. 'Framework Analysis' was used to analyse the focus groups. Results Only 28 {\%} of 18--25 year olds achieved recommended levels of PA which decreased with age. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22 {\%}, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes toward PA were strong predictors of physical activity associated with being physically active and less sedentary. However, strong intentions to do exercise, was not associated with actual behaviour. Interactive discussions through focus groups unravelled attitudes and barriers influencing PA behaviour. Doing PA to feel good and to enjoy themselves was more important for young people than the common assumptions of 'winning' and 'pleasing others'. Further this age group saw traditional health promotion messages as 'empty' and 'fear of their future health' was not a motivating factor to change current behaviour. Conclusion 18--25 year olds are a difficult group to reach and have low levels of PA. Factors such as, 'enjoyment', 'appearance 'and 'feeling good' were deemed important by this specific age group. A targeted intervention incorporating these crucial elements should be developed to improve and sustain PA levels.",
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AU - Poobalan, Amudha S

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AU - Smith, W Cairns S

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N2 - Background Young people (18--25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) behaviour among 18--25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at university/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial self reported quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted. 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Results from this were incorporated into a qualitative phase also grounded in these theories. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. 'Framework Analysis' was used to analyse the focus groups. Results Only 28 % of 18--25 year olds achieved recommended levels of PA which decreased with age. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22 %, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes toward PA were strong predictors of physical activity associated with being physically active and less sedentary. However, strong intentions to do exercise, was not associated with actual behaviour. Interactive discussions through focus groups unravelled attitudes and barriers influencing PA behaviour. Doing PA to feel good and to enjoy themselves was more important for young people than the common assumptions of 'winning' and 'pleasing others'. Further this age group saw traditional health promotion messages as 'empty' and 'fear of their future health' was not a motivating factor to change current behaviour. Conclusion 18--25 year olds are a difficult group to reach and have low levels of PA. Factors such as, 'enjoyment', 'appearance 'and 'feeling good' were deemed important by this specific age group. A targeted intervention incorporating these crucial elements should be developed to improve and sustain PA levels.

AB - Background Young people (18--25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) behaviour among 18--25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at university/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial self reported quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted. 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Results from this were incorporated into a qualitative phase also grounded in these theories. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. 'Framework Analysis' was used to analyse the focus groups. Results Only 28 % of 18--25 year olds achieved recommended levels of PA which decreased with age. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22 %, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes toward PA were strong predictors of physical activity associated with being physically active and less sedentary. However, strong intentions to do exercise, was not associated with actual behaviour. Interactive discussions through focus groups unravelled attitudes and barriers influencing PA behaviour. Doing PA to feel good and to enjoy themselves was more important for young people than the common assumptions of 'winning' and 'pleasing others'. Further this age group saw traditional health promotion messages as 'empty' and 'fear of their future health' was not a motivating factor to change current behaviour. Conclusion 18--25 year olds are a difficult group to reach and have low levels of PA. Factors such as, 'enjoyment', 'appearance 'and 'feeling good' were deemed important by this specific age group. A targeted intervention incorporating these crucial elements should be developed to improve and sustain PA levels.

KW - physical activity

KW - young people

KW - 18–25 year olds

KW - mixed methods

KW - obesity

KW - transition

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DO - 10.1186/1471-2458-12-640

M3 - Article

VL - 12

JO - BMC Public Health

JF - BMC Public Health

SN - 1471-2458

M1 - 640

ER -