The biofilm formation of a strain of the extremophile bacterium Acidiphilium sp., capable of donating electrons directly to electrodes, was studied by different surface characterization techniques. We develop a method that allows the simultaneous study of bacterial biofilms by means of fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), in which transparent graphitic flakes deposited on a glass substrate are used as a support for the biofilm. The majority of the cells present on the surface were viable, and the growth of the biofilms over time showed a critical increase of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) as well as the formation of nanosized particles inside the biofilm. Also, the presence of Fe in Acidiphilium biofilms was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), whereas surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy indicated the presence of redox-active proteins.
- atomic force microscopy
- redox reactions
- X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy