Objective: To quantify the major carotenoids in plasma of Scottish males and establish which were affected by habitual smoking.
Design: Concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin C and vitamin E (alpha and gamma-tocopherol) were determined in plasma samples from 50 fasted male smokers and 50 age-matched males who had never smoked (aged 50-59 years).
Results: Significantly less alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin and vitamin C in plasma of smokers than in never-smokers whereas concentrations of lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, phytofluene and vitamin E were similar between the groups.
Conclusion: Whether lower carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations in smokers than never-smokers reflect different dietary patterns or increased metabolic turnover is unclear but smokers may benefit from increased carotenoid and vitamin C intakes.
- plasma carotenoids
- plasma caretonoids