Positioning the expanded akirin gene family of Atlantic salmon within the transcriptional networks of myogenesis

Daniel J Macqueen, Neil I Bower, Ian A Johnston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Vertebrate akirin genes usually form a family with one-to-three members that regulate gene expression during the innate immune response, carcinogenesis and myogenesis. We recently established that an expanded family of eight akirin genes is conserved across salmonid fish. Here, we measured mRNA levels of the akirin family of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) during the differentiation of primary myoblasts cultured from fast-skeletal muscle. Using hierarchical clustering and correlation, the data was positioned into a network of expression profiles including twenty further genes that regulate myogenesis. akirin1(2b) was not significantly regulated during the maturation of the cell culture. akirin2(1a) and 2(1b), along with IGF-II and several igfbps, were most highly expressed in mononuclear cells, then significantly and constitutively downregulated as differentiation proceeded and myotubes formed/matured. Conversely, akirin1(1a), 1(1b), 1(2a), 2(2a) and 2(2b) were expressed at lowest levels when mononuclear cells dominated the culture and highest levels when confluent layers of myotubes were evident. However, akirin1(2a) and 2(2a) were first upregulated earlier than akirin1(1a), 1(1b) and 2(2b), when rates of myoblast proliferation were highest. Interestingly, akirin1(1b), 1(2a), 2(2a) and 2(2b) formed part of a module of co-expressed genes involved in muscle differentiation, including myod1a, myog, mef2a, 14-3-3ß and 14-3-3¿. All akirin paralogues were expressed ubiquitously across ten tissues, although mRNA levels were regulated between cell-types and family members. Gene expression patterns were often highly correlated between akirin paralogues, suggesting that natural selection has maintained an intricate network of co-regulation among family members. We concluded that the Atlantic salmon akirin family performs a multifaceted role during myogenesis and has physiological functions spanning many cell-types.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)599-605
Number of pages7
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Volume400
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2010

Fingerprint

Salmo salar
Muscle Development
Gene Regulatory Networks
Genes
Myoblasts
Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Gene expression
Muscle
Cell Culture Techniques
Gene Expression
Messenger RNA
Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
Genetic Selection
Cell culture
Innate Immunity
Fish
Cluster Analysis
Vertebrates
Carcinogenesis
Fishes

Keywords

  • akirin gene family paralogues
  • Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
  • myogenesis
  • gene paralogue regulation

Cite this

Positioning the expanded akirin gene family of Atlantic salmon within the transcriptional networks of myogenesis. / Macqueen, Daniel J; Bower, Neil I; Johnston, Ian A.

In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 400, No. 4, 01.10.2010, p. 599-605.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{6331538f9ea247be8f35bfbed2aab35a,
title = "Positioning the expanded akirin gene family of Atlantic salmon within the transcriptional networks of myogenesis",
abstract = "Vertebrate akirin genes usually form a family with one-to-three members that regulate gene expression during the innate immune response, carcinogenesis and myogenesis. We recently established that an expanded family of eight akirin genes is conserved across salmonid fish. Here, we measured mRNA levels of the akirin family of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) during the differentiation of primary myoblasts cultured from fast-skeletal muscle. Using hierarchical clustering and correlation, the data was positioned into a network of expression profiles including twenty further genes that regulate myogenesis. akirin1(2b) was not significantly regulated during the maturation of the cell culture. akirin2(1a) and 2(1b), along with IGF-II and several igfbps, were most highly expressed in mononuclear cells, then significantly and constitutively downregulated as differentiation proceeded and myotubes formed/matured. Conversely, akirin1(1a), 1(1b), 1(2a), 2(2a) and 2(2b) were expressed at lowest levels when mononuclear cells dominated the culture and highest levels when confluent layers of myotubes were evident. However, akirin1(2a) and 2(2a) were first upregulated earlier than akirin1(1a), 1(1b) and 2(2b), when rates of myoblast proliferation were highest. Interestingly, akirin1(1b), 1(2a), 2(2a) and 2(2b) formed part of a module of co-expressed genes involved in muscle differentiation, including myod1a, myog, mef2a, 14-3-3{\ss} and 14-3-3¿. All akirin paralogues were expressed ubiquitously across ten tissues, although mRNA levels were regulated between cell-types and family members. Gene expression patterns were often highly correlated between akirin paralogues, suggesting that natural selection has maintained an intricate network of co-regulation among family members. We concluded that the Atlantic salmon akirin family performs a multifaceted role during myogenesis and has physiological functions spanning many cell-types.",
keywords = "akirin gene family paralogues, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), myogenesis, gene paralogue regulation",
author = "Macqueen, {Daniel J} and Bower, {Neil I} and Johnston, {Ian A}",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.",
year = "2010",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.08.110",
language = "English",
volume = "400",
pages = "599--605",
journal = "Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications",
issn = "0006-291X",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Positioning the expanded akirin gene family of Atlantic salmon within the transcriptional networks of myogenesis

AU - Macqueen, Daniel J

AU - Bower, Neil I

AU - Johnston, Ian A

N1 - Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PY - 2010/10/1

Y1 - 2010/10/1

N2 - Vertebrate akirin genes usually form a family with one-to-three members that regulate gene expression during the innate immune response, carcinogenesis and myogenesis. We recently established that an expanded family of eight akirin genes is conserved across salmonid fish. Here, we measured mRNA levels of the akirin family of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) during the differentiation of primary myoblasts cultured from fast-skeletal muscle. Using hierarchical clustering and correlation, the data was positioned into a network of expression profiles including twenty further genes that regulate myogenesis. akirin1(2b) was not significantly regulated during the maturation of the cell culture. akirin2(1a) and 2(1b), along with IGF-II and several igfbps, were most highly expressed in mononuclear cells, then significantly and constitutively downregulated as differentiation proceeded and myotubes formed/matured. Conversely, akirin1(1a), 1(1b), 1(2a), 2(2a) and 2(2b) were expressed at lowest levels when mononuclear cells dominated the culture and highest levels when confluent layers of myotubes were evident. However, akirin1(2a) and 2(2a) were first upregulated earlier than akirin1(1a), 1(1b) and 2(2b), when rates of myoblast proliferation were highest. Interestingly, akirin1(1b), 1(2a), 2(2a) and 2(2b) formed part of a module of co-expressed genes involved in muscle differentiation, including myod1a, myog, mef2a, 14-3-3ß and 14-3-3¿. All akirin paralogues were expressed ubiquitously across ten tissues, although mRNA levels were regulated between cell-types and family members. Gene expression patterns were often highly correlated between akirin paralogues, suggesting that natural selection has maintained an intricate network of co-regulation among family members. We concluded that the Atlantic salmon akirin family performs a multifaceted role during myogenesis and has physiological functions spanning many cell-types.

AB - Vertebrate akirin genes usually form a family with one-to-three members that regulate gene expression during the innate immune response, carcinogenesis and myogenesis. We recently established that an expanded family of eight akirin genes is conserved across salmonid fish. Here, we measured mRNA levels of the akirin family of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) during the differentiation of primary myoblasts cultured from fast-skeletal muscle. Using hierarchical clustering and correlation, the data was positioned into a network of expression profiles including twenty further genes that regulate myogenesis. akirin1(2b) was not significantly regulated during the maturation of the cell culture. akirin2(1a) and 2(1b), along with IGF-II and several igfbps, were most highly expressed in mononuclear cells, then significantly and constitutively downregulated as differentiation proceeded and myotubes formed/matured. Conversely, akirin1(1a), 1(1b), 1(2a), 2(2a) and 2(2b) were expressed at lowest levels when mononuclear cells dominated the culture and highest levels when confluent layers of myotubes were evident. However, akirin1(2a) and 2(2a) were first upregulated earlier than akirin1(1a), 1(1b) and 2(2b), when rates of myoblast proliferation were highest. Interestingly, akirin1(1b), 1(2a), 2(2a) and 2(2b) formed part of a module of co-expressed genes involved in muscle differentiation, including myod1a, myog, mef2a, 14-3-3ß and 14-3-3¿. All akirin paralogues were expressed ubiquitously across ten tissues, although mRNA levels were regulated between cell-types and family members. Gene expression patterns were often highly correlated between akirin paralogues, suggesting that natural selection has maintained an intricate network of co-regulation among family members. We concluded that the Atlantic salmon akirin family performs a multifaceted role during myogenesis and has physiological functions spanning many cell-types.

KW - akirin gene family paralogues

KW - Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

KW - myogenesis

KW - gene paralogue regulation

U2 - 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.08.110

DO - 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.08.110

M3 - Article

VL - 400

SP - 599

EP - 605

JO - Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

JF - Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

SN - 0006-291X

IS - 4

ER -