Presence/absence, differential expression and sequence polymorphisms between PiAVR2 and PiAVR2-like in Phytophthora infestans determine virulence on R2 plants

Eleanor M Gilroy, Susan Breen, Stephen C Whisson, Julie Squires, Ingo Hein, Maciej Kaczmarek, Dionne Turnbull, Petra C Boevink, Anoma Lokossou, Liliana M Cano, Juan Morales, Anna O Avrova, Leighton Pritchard, Eva Randall, Alison Lees, Francine Govers, Pieter van West, Sophien Kamoun, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers, David E L Cooke & 1 others Paul R J Birch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

• A detailed molecular understanding of how oomycete plant pathogens evade disease resistance is essential to inform the deployment of durable resistance (R) genes. • Map-based cloning, transient expression in planta, pathogen transformation and DNA sequence variation across diverse isolates were used to identify and characterize PiAVR2 from potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. • PiAVR2 is an RXLR-EER effector that is up-regulated during infection, accumulates at the site of haustoria formation, and is recognized inside host cells by potato protein R2. Expression of PiAVR2 in a virulent P. infestans isolate conveys a gain-of-avirulence phenotype, indicating that this is a dominant gene triggering R2-dependent disease resistance. PiAVR2 presence/absence polymorphisms and differential transcription explain virulence on R2 plants. Isolates infecting R2 plants express PiAVR2-like, which evades recognition by R2. PiAVR2 and PiAVR2-like differ in 13 amino acids, eight of which are in the C-terminal effector domain; one or more of these determines recognition by R2. Nevertheless, few polymorphisms were observed within each gene in pathogen isolates, suggesting limited selection pressure for change within PiAVR2 and PiAVR2-like. • Our results direct a search for R genes recognizing PiAVR2-like, which, deployed with R2, may exert strong selection pressure against the P. infestans population.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)736-776
Number of pages40
JournalNew Phytologist
Volume191
Issue number3
Early online date3 May 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011

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Phytophthora infestans
vpr Genes
Virulence
Disease Resistance
virulence
genetic polymorphism
Solanum tuberosum
Oomycetes
disease resistance
Pressure
pathogens
Dominant Genes
potato protein
genes
Organism Cloning
dominant genes
Plantae
plant pathogens
Phenotype
Amino Acids

Keywords

  • durable disease resistance
  • effector-triggered immunity
  • gene-for-gene
  • hypersensitive response
  • potato blight

Cite this

Presence/absence, differential expression and sequence polymorphisms between PiAVR2 and PiAVR2-like in Phytophthora infestans determine virulence on R2 plants. / Gilroy, Eleanor M; Breen, Susan; Whisson, Stephen C; Squires, Julie; Hein, Ingo; Kaczmarek, Maciej; Turnbull, Dionne; Boevink, Petra C; Lokossou, Anoma; Cano, Liliana M; Morales, Juan; Avrova, Anna O; Pritchard, Leighton; Randall, Eva; Lees, Alison; Govers, Francine; van West, Pieter; Kamoun, Sophien; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Cooke, David E L; Birch, Paul R J.

In: New Phytologist, Vol. 191, No. 3, 08.2011, p. 736-776.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gilroy, EM, Breen, S, Whisson, SC, Squires, J, Hein, I, Kaczmarek, M, Turnbull, D, Boevink, PC, Lokossou, A, Cano, LM, Morales, J, Avrova, AO, Pritchard, L, Randall, E, Lees, A, Govers, F, van West, P, Kamoun, S, Vleeshouwers, VGAA, Cooke, DEL & Birch, PRJ 2011, 'Presence/absence, differential expression and sequence polymorphisms between PiAVR2 and PiAVR2-like in Phytophthora infestans determine virulence on R2 plants', New Phytologist, vol. 191, no. 3, pp. 736-776. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03736.x
Gilroy, Eleanor M ; Breen, Susan ; Whisson, Stephen C ; Squires, Julie ; Hein, Ingo ; Kaczmarek, Maciej ; Turnbull, Dionne ; Boevink, Petra C ; Lokossou, Anoma ; Cano, Liliana M ; Morales, Juan ; Avrova, Anna O ; Pritchard, Leighton ; Randall, Eva ; Lees, Alison ; Govers, Francine ; van West, Pieter ; Kamoun, Sophien ; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A ; Cooke, David E L ; Birch, Paul R J. / Presence/absence, differential expression and sequence polymorphisms between PiAVR2 and PiAVR2-like in Phytophthora infestans determine virulence on R2 plants. In: New Phytologist. 2011 ; Vol. 191, No. 3. pp. 736-776.
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AU - Hein, Ingo

AU - Kaczmarek, Maciej

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AU - Cano, Liliana M

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AU - Govers, Francine

AU - van West, Pieter

AU - Kamoun, Sophien

AU - Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A

AU - Cooke, David E L

AU - Birch, Paul R J

N1 - © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

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