Prevalence and correlates of depressive disorders in people with Type 2 diabetes: results from the International Prevalence and Treatment of Diabetes and Depression (INTERPRET-DD) study, a collaborative study carried out in 14 countries

C.E. Lloyd* (Corresponding Author), A. Nouwen, N. Sartorius, H.U. Ahmed, A. Alvarez, S. Bahendeka, D. Basangwa, A.E. Bobrov, S. Boden, V. Bulgari, L. Burti, S.K. Chaturvedi, L.C. Cimino, W. Gaebel, G. de Girolamo, T.M. Gondek, M.G. de Braude, A. Guntupalli, M.G. Heinze, L. JiX. Hong, A. Khan, A. Kiejna, A. Kokoszka, T. Kamala, N.M. Lalic, D. Lecic Tosevski, B. Mankovsky, M. Li, A. Musau, K. Müssig, D. Ndetei, G. Rabbani, S.S. Srikanta, E.G. Starostina, M. Shevchuk, R. Taj, O. Vukovic, W. Wölwer, Y. Xin

*Corresponding author for this work

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19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims To assess the prevalence and management of depressive disorders in people with Type 2 diabetes in different countries. Methods People with diabetes aged 18–65 years and treated in outpatient settings were recruited in 14 countries and underwent a psychiatric interview. Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale. Demographic and medical record data were collected. Results A total of 2783 people with Type 2 diabetes (45.3% men, mean duration of diabetes 8.8 years) participated. Overall, 10.6% were diagnosed with current major depressive disorder and 17.0% reported moderate to severe levels of depressive symptomatology (Patient Health Questionnaire scores >9). Multivariable analyses showed that, after controlling for country, current major depressive disorder was significantly associated with gender (women) (P <0.0001), a lower level of education (P <0.05), doing less exercise (P <0.01), higher levels of diabetes distress (P <0.0001) and a previous diagnosis of major depressive disorder (P <0.0001). The proportion of those with either current major depressive disorder or moderate to severe levels of depressive symptomatology who had a diagnosis or any treatment for their depression recorded in their medical records was extremely low and non‐existent in many countries (0–29.6%). Conclusions Our international study, the largest of this type ever undertaken, shows that people with diabetes frequently have depressive disorders and also significant levels of depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that the identification and appropriate care for psychological and psychiatric problems is not the norm and suggest a lack of the comprehensive approach to diabetes management that is needed to improve clinical outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)760-769
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Volume35
Issue number6
Early online date30 Mar 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018

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    Lloyd, C. E., Nouwen, A., Sartorius, N., Ahmed, H. U., Alvarez, A., Bahendeka, S., Basangwa, D., Bobrov, A. E., Boden, S., Bulgari, V., Burti, L., Chaturvedi, S. K., Cimino, L. C., Gaebel, W., de Girolamo, G., Gondek, T. M., de Braude, M. G., Guntupalli, A., Heinze, M. G., ... Xin, Y. (2018). Prevalence and correlates of depressive disorders in people with Type 2 diabetes: results from the International Prevalence and Treatment of Diabetes and Depression (INTERPRET-DD) study, a collaborative study carried out in 14 countries. Diabetic Medicine, 35(6), 760-769. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.13611