Prevalence and risk factors for lens opacities in Nigeria

results of the national blindness and low vision survey

Abdull M Mahdi, Mansur Rabiu, Clare Gilbert, Selvaraj Sivasubramaniam, Gudlavalleti V S Murthy, Christian Ezelum, Gabriel Entekume, Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment study group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE: Investigate prevalence and risk factors for lens opacities among a nationally representative sample of Nigerians aged ≥ 40 years.

METHODS: Across 305 clusters, 13,591 adults were examined. Every seventh participant (n = 1722) was sampled systematically and examined in detail, including lens opacity grading. Lenses were examined at the slit-lamp with pupil dilation and graded using the World Health Organization (WHO) system. Significant opacities were defined as nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular opacity of WHO grade >1, or hyper/mature cataract. The category "Any Opacity" included hyper/mature opacity and aphakia/pseudophakia/couching. Data were collected on sociodemographic and environmental factors, including height and weight.

RESULTS: A total of 1631/1722 (95%) in the normative subsample had their lenses graded. Prevalence of "Any Opacity" was 19.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9-21.7) the prevalence of all types increased with age, and was higher in females and those not literate. Prevalence of nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular were 8.8% (95% CI: 7.5-10.1); 11.7% (95% CI: 10.0-13.3); and 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1-3.8), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age was an independent risk factor for all types. Nuclear opacity was also associated with female sex (odds ratio [OR] 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5-3.6); lean body mass index (BMI; OR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5); and the Igbo ethnic group (OR 4.4; 95% CI: 2.3-8.4). Cortical opacity was also associated with female sex (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-3.0) and the Yoruba (OR 0.45; 95% CI: 0.3-0.8), but not with BMI. "Other Lens Opacities," which includes couching, was significantly lower in the Guinea savannah region (OR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9), while living in rain forest areas was protective for posterior subcapsular cataracts (OR 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.7).

CONCLUSIONS: A fifth of Nigerian adults have some degree of lens opacity. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of ethnicity, climate variables, and other risk factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2642-2651
Number of pages10
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Volume55
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2014

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Low Vision
Blindness
Nigeria
Cataract
Confidence Intervals
Odds Ratio
Sex Ratio
Lenses
Surveys and Questionnaires
Pseudophakia
Guinea
Aphakia
Pupil
Climate
Ethnic Groups
Dilatation
Body Mass Index
Multivariate Analysis

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blindness
  • Cataract
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nigeria
  • Population Surveillance
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Vision, Low
  • Visual Acuity

Cite this

Mahdi, A. M., Rabiu, M., Gilbert, C., Sivasubramaniam, S., Murthy, G. V. S., Ezelum, C., ... Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment study group (2014). Prevalence and risk factors for lens opacities in Nigeria: results of the national blindness and low vision survey. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 55(4), 2642-2651. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-10303

Prevalence and risk factors for lens opacities in Nigeria : results of the national blindness and low vision survey. / Mahdi, Abdull M; Rabiu, Mansur; Gilbert, Clare; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Ezelum, Christian; Entekume, Gabriel; Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment study group.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Vol. 55, No. 4, 04.2014, p. 2642-2651.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mahdi, AM, Rabiu, M, Gilbert, C, Sivasubramaniam, S, Murthy, GVS, Ezelum, C, Entekume, G & Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment study group 2014, 'Prevalence and risk factors for lens opacities in Nigeria: results of the national blindness and low vision survey', Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 2642-2651. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-10303
Mahdi, Abdull M ; Rabiu, Mansur ; Gilbert, Clare ; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj ; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S ; Ezelum, Christian ; Entekume, Gabriel ; Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment study group. / Prevalence and risk factors for lens opacities in Nigeria : results of the national blindness and low vision survey. In: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2014 ; Vol. 55, No. 4. pp. 2642-2651.
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abstract = "PURPOSE: Investigate prevalence and risk factors for lens opacities among a nationally representative sample of Nigerians aged ≥ 40 years.METHODS: Across 305 clusters, 13,591 adults were examined. Every seventh participant (n = 1722) was sampled systematically and examined in detail, including lens opacity grading. Lenses were examined at the slit-lamp with pupil dilation and graded using the World Health Organization (WHO) system. Significant opacities were defined as nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular opacity of WHO grade >1, or hyper/mature cataract. The category {"}Any Opacity{"} included hyper/mature opacity and aphakia/pseudophakia/couching. Data were collected on sociodemographic and environmental factors, including height and weight.RESULTS: A total of 1631/1722 (95{\%}) in the normative subsample had their lenses graded. Prevalence of {"}Any Opacity{"} was 19.8{\%} (95{\%} confidence interval [CI]: 7.9-21.7) the prevalence of all types increased with age, and was higher in females and those not literate. Prevalence of nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular were 8.8{\%} (95{\%} CI: 7.5-10.1); 11.7{\%} (95{\%} CI: 10.0-13.3); and 2.9{\%} (95{\%} CI: 2.1-3.8), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age was an independent risk factor for all types. Nuclear opacity was also associated with female sex (odds ratio [OR] 2.4; 95{\%} CI: 1.5-3.6); lean body mass index (BMI; OR 2.0; 95{\%} CI: 1.1-3.5); and the Igbo ethnic group (OR 4.4; 95{\%} CI: 2.3-8.4). Cortical opacity was also associated with female sex (OR 2.1; 95{\%} CI: 1.5-3.0) and the Yoruba (OR 0.45; 95{\%} CI: 0.3-0.8), but not with BMI. {"}Other Lens Opacities,{"} which includes couching, was significantly lower in the Guinea savannah region (OR 0.4; 95{\%} CI: 0.2-0.9), while living in rain forest areas was protective for posterior subcapsular cataracts (OR 0.3; 95{\%} CI: 0.1-0.7).CONCLUSIONS: A fifth of Nigerian adults have some degree of lens opacity. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of ethnicity, climate variables, and other risk factors.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevalence and risk factors for lens opacities in Nigeria

T2 - results of the national blindness and low vision survey

AU - Mahdi, Abdull M

AU - Rabiu, Mansur

AU - Gilbert, Clare

AU - Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj

AU - Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S

AU - Ezelum, Christian

AU - Entekume, Gabriel

AU - Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment study group

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N2 - PURPOSE: Investigate prevalence and risk factors for lens opacities among a nationally representative sample of Nigerians aged ≥ 40 years.METHODS: Across 305 clusters, 13,591 adults were examined. Every seventh participant (n = 1722) was sampled systematically and examined in detail, including lens opacity grading. Lenses were examined at the slit-lamp with pupil dilation and graded using the World Health Organization (WHO) system. Significant opacities were defined as nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular opacity of WHO grade >1, or hyper/mature cataract. The category "Any Opacity" included hyper/mature opacity and aphakia/pseudophakia/couching. Data were collected on sociodemographic and environmental factors, including height and weight.RESULTS: A total of 1631/1722 (95%) in the normative subsample had their lenses graded. Prevalence of "Any Opacity" was 19.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9-21.7) the prevalence of all types increased with age, and was higher in females and those not literate. Prevalence of nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular were 8.8% (95% CI: 7.5-10.1); 11.7% (95% CI: 10.0-13.3); and 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1-3.8), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age was an independent risk factor for all types. Nuclear opacity was also associated with female sex (odds ratio [OR] 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5-3.6); lean body mass index (BMI; OR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5); and the Igbo ethnic group (OR 4.4; 95% CI: 2.3-8.4). Cortical opacity was also associated with female sex (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-3.0) and the Yoruba (OR 0.45; 95% CI: 0.3-0.8), but not with BMI. "Other Lens Opacities," which includes couching, was significantly lower in the Guinea savannah region (OR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9), while living in rain forest areas was protective for posterior subcapsular cataracts (OR 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.7).CONCLUSIONS: A fifth of Nigerian adults have some degree of lens opacity. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of ethnicity, climate variables, and other risk factors.

AB - PURPOSE: Investigate prevalence and risk factors for lens opacities among a nationally representative sample of Nigerians aged ≥ 40 years.METHODS: Across 305 clusters, 13,591 adults were examined. Every seventh participant (n = 1722) was sampled systematically and examined in detail, including lens opacity grading. Lenses were examined at the slit-lamp with pupil dilation and graded using the World Health Organization (WHO) system. Significant opacities were defined as nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular opacity of WHO grade >1, or hyper/mature cataract. The category "Any Opacity" included hyper/mature opacity and aphakia/pseudophakia/couching. Data were collected on sociodemographic and environmental factors, including height and weight.RESULTS: A total of 1631/1722 (95%) in the normative subsample had their lenses graded. Prevalence of "Any Opacity" was 19.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9-21.7) the prevalence of all types increased with age, and was higher in females and those not literate. Prevalence of nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular were 8.8% (95% CI: 7.5-10.1); 11.7% (95% CI: 10.0-13.3); and 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1-3.8), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age was an independent risk factor for all types. Nuclear opacity was also associated with female sex (odds ratio [OR] 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5-3.6); lean body mass index (BMI; OR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5); and the Igbo ethnic group (OR 4.4; 95% CI: 2.3-8.4). Cortical opacity was also associated with female sex (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-3.0) and the Yoruba (OR 0.45; 95% CI: 0.3-0.8), but not with BMI. "Other Lens Opacities," which includes couching, was significantly lower in the Guinea savannah region (OR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9), while living in rain forest areas was protective for posterior subcapsular cataracts (OR 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.7).CONCLUSIONS: A fifth of Nigerian adults have some degree of lens opacity. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of ethnicity, climate variables, and other risk factors.

KW - Adult

KW - Aged

KW - Aged, 80 and over

KW - Blindness

KW - Cataract

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Nigeria

KW - Population Surveillance

KW - Prevalence

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Vision, Low

KW - Visual Acuity

U2 - 10.1167/iovs.12-10303

DO - 10.1167/iovs.12-10303

M3 - Article

VL - 55

SP - 2642

EP - 2651

JO - Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

JF - Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

SN - 0146-0404

IS - 4

ER -