An oestrogen-sensitive rat mammary tumour (OES HR1) has been grown in normal female rats and in female and male rats supplemented with oestrone. In some rats, after the tumour was established, both exogenous and endogenous sources of oestrogen were removed--a treatment which inhibited further growth of the tumour. The proliferative characteristics of the tumours were measured by injecting the rats with deoxybromouridine (BrdU) 4 h before removing the tumour. Extracted nuclei were reacted with anti-BrdU and the labelling index and DNA content measured by flow cytometry. A correlation between the number of (diploid) host cells present and the number of (aneuploid) tumour cells in S-phase of the cell cycle was observed. This result suggests that there are paracrine interactions between tumour and host cells. We also observed that, on oestrogen ablation, the labelling index was significantly reduced while the percentage of cells in S-phase changed far less. The demonstration that there are cells in S-phase which are not proliferating highlights a possible problem with the measurement of proliferation in human tumours from a DNA histogram.