The surface chemistry and binding Of DL-proline were investigated on the oxidised (stoichiometric) and reduced (sub-stoichiometric) TiO2(110) single crystal surfaces. TiO2 was chosen as the substrate as it best represents the surface of a biomedical implant, which bio-molecules interact with during the healing of bone/teeth fractures (molecular recognition). High resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) studies of the Cls and Nls regions revealed that DL-proline is present in two forms (dissociated and zwitterionic) on the oxidised TiO2 surface. On TiO2(110) surfaces reduced by Ar+ sputtering, a significant increase in the amount of zwitterionic proline at the surface was detected when compared with the oxidised surface. Study of the temperature effect showed that in both cases the zwitterionic structure was the less stable structure. The reason for its relative instability appears to be thermodynamic. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- TiO2(110) single crystal
- proline adsorption
- high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy