Protein Valuation in Food Choice Is Positively Associated with Lean Mass in Older Adults

Charlotte M Buckley (Corresponding Author), Sophie Austin, Bernard M Corfe, Mark A Green, Alexandra M Johnstone, Emma J Stevenson, Elizabeth A Williams, Jeffrey M Brunstrom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Calorie for calorie, protein is more satiating than carbohydrate or fat. However, it remains unclear whether humans perceive calories derived from these macronutrients equally and whether lean mass is associated with a tendency to "value" protein when dietary decisions are made.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability of a novel method for quantifying macronutrient valuations in human volunteers and to determine whether "protein valuation" is associated with a higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) in older adults.

METHODS: A 2-alternative, forced-choice task in which 25 foods were compared in 300 trials was undertaken in 2 studies. In study 1, participants (age range 19-71 y, n = 92) attended 2 test sessions, spaced 1 wk apart. In study 2, older adults (age range 40-85 y; n = 91) completed the food-choice task and assessed the test foods for liking, expected satiety, and perceived healthiness. Body composition and habitual protein intake were assessed in both studies. Data were analyzed through the use of individual binomial logistic regressions and multilevel binomial logistic regressions.

RESULTS: In study 1, measures of macronutrient valuation showed excellent test-retest reliability; responses in the forced-choice task were highly correlated (week 1 compared with week 2; protein, r = 0.83, P < 0.001; carbohydrate, r = 0.90, P < 0.001; fat, r = 0.90, P < 0.001). Calorie for calorie, protein and carbohydrate were stronger predictors of choice than fat (P < 0.001). In study 2, protein was a stronger predictor than both carbohydrate (P = 0.039) and fat (P = 0.003), and a positive interaction was observed between protein valuation and FFMI (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.38, 1.95; P < 0.001). This was the case after controlling for age, gender, liking for foods, and habitual protein consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings demonstrate that adult humans value calories derived from protein, carbohydrate, and fat differently, and that the tendency to value protein is associated with greater lean mass in older adults.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalThe Journal of Nutrition
Early online date14 Jun 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 14 Jun 2019

Fingerprint

Food
Fats
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Reproducibility of Results
Logistic Models
Dietary Proteins
Body Composition
varespladib methyl
Volunteers

Keywords

  • protein valuation
  • sarcopenia
  • food choice
  • body composition
  • fat-free mass index
  • lean mass
  • aging

Cite this

Protein Valuation in Food Choice Is Positively Associated with Lean Mass in Older Adults. / Buckley, Charlotte M (Corresponding Author); Austin, Sophie; Corfe, Bernard M; Green, Mark A; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Stevenson, Emma J; Williams, Elizabeth A; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

In: The Journal of Nutrition, 14.06.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Buckley, Charlotte M ; Austin, Sophie ; Corfe, Bernard M ; Green, Mark A ; Johnstone, Alexandra M ; Stevenson, Emma J ; Williams, Elizabeth A ; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M. / Protein Valuation in Food Choice Is Positively Associated with Lean Mass in Older Adults. In: The Journal of Nutrition. 2019.
@article{db98f06f2aaf4f94b50c22fa0700851c,
title = "Protein Valuation in Food Choice Is Positively Associated with Lean Mass in Older Adults",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Calorie for calorie, protein is more satiating than carbohydrate or fat. However, it remains unclear whether humans perceive calories derived from these macronutrients equally and whether lean mass is associated with a tendency to {"}value{"} protein when dietary decisions are made.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability of a novel method for quantifying macronutrient valuations in human volunteers and to determine whether {"}protein valuation{"} is associated with a higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) in older adults.METHODS: A 2-alternative, forced-choice task in which 25 foods were compared in 300 trials was undertaken in 2 studies. In study 1, participants (age range 19-71 y, n = 92) attended 2 test sessions, spaced 1 wk apart. In study 2, older adults (age range 40-85 y; n = 91) completed the food-choice task and assessed the test foods for liking, expected satiety, and perceived healthiness. Body composition and habitual protein intake were assessed in both studies. Data were analyzed through the use of individual binomial logistic regressions and multilevel binomial logistic regressions.RESULTS: In study 1, measures of macronutrient valuation showed excellent test-retest reliability; responses in the forced-choice task were highly correlated (week 1 compared with week 2; protein, r = 0.83, P < 0.001; carbohydrate, r = 0.90, P < 0.001; fat, r = 0.90, P < 0.001). Calorie for calorie, protein and carbohydrate were stronger predictors of choice than fat (P < 0.001). In study 2, protein was a stronger predictor than both carbohydrate (P = 0.039) and fat (P = 0.003), and a positive interaction was observed between protein valuation and FFMI (OR = 1.64; 95{\%} CI: 1.38, 1.95; P < 0.001). This was the case after controlling for age, gender, liking for foods, and habitual protein consumption.CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings demonstrate that adult humans value calories derived from protein, carbohydrate, and fat differently, and that the tendency to value protein is associated with greater lean mass in older adults.",
keywords = "protein valuation, sarcopenia, food choice, body composition, fat-free mass index, lean mass, aging",
author = "Buckley, {Charlotte M} and Sophie Austin and Corfe, {Bernard M} and Green, {Mark A} and Johnstone, {Alexandra M} and Stevenson, {Emma J} and Williams, {Elizabeth A} and Brunstrom, {Jeffrey M}",
note = "Funded by the Research Councils UK “Priming Food Partnerships” initiative supported by BBSRC, MRC, EPSRC, and ESRC (project reference BB/P023886/1).",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1093/jn/nxz124",
language = "English",
journal = "The Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "0022-3166",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Protein Valuation in Food Choice Is Positively Associated with Lean Mass in Older Adults

AU - Buckley, Charlotte M

AU - Austin, Sophie

AU - Corfe, Bernard M

AU - Green, Mark A

AU - Johnstone, Alexandra M

AU - Stevenson, Emma J

AU - Williams, Elizabeth A

AU - Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

N1 - Funded by the Research Councils UK “Priming Food Partnerships” initiative supported by BBSRC, MRC, EPSRC, and ESRC (project reference BB/P023886/1).

PY - 2019/6/14

Y1 - 2019/6/14

N2 - BACKGROUND: Calorie for calorie, protein is more satiating than carbohydrate or fat. However, it remains unclear whether humans perceive calories derived from these macronutrients equally and whether lean mass is associated with a tendency to "value" protein when dietary decisions are made.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability of a novel method for quantifying macronutrient valuations in human volunteers and to determine whether "protein valuation" is associated with a higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) in older adults.METHODS: A 2-alternative, forced-choice task in which 25 foods were compared in 300 trials was undertaken in 2 studies. In study 1, participants (age range 19-71 y, n = 92) attended 2 test sessions, spaced 1 wk apart. In study 2, older adults (age range 40-85 y; n = 91) completed the food-choice task and assessed the test foods for liking, expected satiety, and perceived healthiness. Body composition and habitual protein intake were assessed in both studies. Data were analyzed through the use of individual binomial logistic regressions and multilevel binomial logistic regressions.RESULTS: In study 1, measures of macronutrient valuation showed excellent test-retest reliability; responses in the forced-choice task were highly correlated (week 1 compared with week 2; protein, r = 0.83, P < 0.001; carbohydrate, r = 0.90, P < 0.001; fat, r = 0.90, P < 0.001). Calorie for calorie, protein and carbohydrate were stronger predictors of choice than fat (P < 0.001). In study 2, protein was a stronger predictor than both carbohydrate (P = 0.039) and fat (P = 0.003), and a positive interaction was observed between protein valuation and FFMI (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.38, 1.95; P < 0.001). This was the case after controlling for age, gender, liking for foods, and habitual protein consumption.CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings demonstrate that adult humans value calories derived from protein, carbohydrate, and fat differently, and that the tendency to value protein is associated with greater lean mass in older adults.

AB - BACKGROUND: Calorie for calorie, protein is more satiating than carbohydrate or fat. However, it remains unclear whether humans perceive calories derived from these macronutrients equally and whether lean mass is associated with a tendency to "value" protein when dietary decisions are made.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability of a novel method for quantifying macronutrient valuations in human volunteers and to determine whether "protein valuation" is associated with a higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) in older adults.METHODS: A 2-alternative, forced-choice task in which 25 foods were compared in 300 trials was undertaken in 2 studies. In study 1, participants (age range 19-71 y, n = 92) attended 2 test sessions, spaced 1 wk apart. In study 2, older adults (age range 40-85 y; n = 91) completed the food-choice task and assessed the test foods for liking, expected satiety, and perceived healthiness. Body composition and habitual protein intake were assessed in both studies. Data were analyzed through the use of individual binomial logistic regressions and multilevel binomial logistic regressions.RESULTS: In study 1, measures of macronutrient valuation showed excellent test-retest reliability; responses in the forced-choice task were highly correlated (week 1 compared with week 2; protein, r = 0.83, P < 0.001; carbohydrate, r = 0.90, P < 0.001; fat, r = 0.90, P < 0.001). Calorie for calorie, protein and carbohydrate were stronger predictors of choice than fat (P < 0.001). In study 2, protein was a stronger predictor than both carbohydrate (P = 0.039) and fat (P = 0.003), and a positive interaction was observed between protein valuation and FFMI (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.38, 1.95; P < 0.001). This was the case after controlling for age, gender, liking for foods, and habitual protein consumption.CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings demonstrate that adult humans value calories derived from protein, carbohydrate, and fat differently, and that the tendency to value protein is associated with greater lean mass in older adults.

KW - protein valuation

KW - sarcopenia

KW - food choice

KW - body composition

KW - fat-free mass index

KW - lean mass

KW - aging

UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/protein-valuation-food-choice-positively-associated-lean-mass-older-adults

U2 - 10.1093/jn/nxz124

DO - 10.1093/jn/nxz124

M3 - Article

JO - The Journal of Nutrition

JF - The Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0022-3166

ER -