Background: Intuitively, cardiac dyssynchrony is the inevitable result of myocardial injury. We hypothezised that radial dyssynchrony reflects left ventricular remodeling, myocardial scarring, QRS duration and impaired LV function and that, accordingly, it is detectable in all patients with heart failure.
Methods: 225 patients with heart failure, grouped according to QRS duration of < 120 ms (A, n = 75), between 120-149 ms (B, n = 75) or >= 150 ms (C, n = 75), and 50 healthy controls underwent assessment of radial dyssynchrony using the cardiovascular magnetic resonance tissue synchronization index (CMR-TSI = SD of time to peak inward endocardial motion in up to 60 myocardial segments).
Results: Compared to 50 healthy controls (21.8 +/- 6.3 ms [mean +/- SD]), CMR-TSI was higher in A (74.8 +/- 34.6 ms), B (92.4 +/- 39.5 ms) and C (104.6 +/- 45.6 ms) (all p < 0.0001). Adopting a cut-off CMR-TSI of 34.4 ms (21.8 plus 2xSD for controls) for the definition of dyssynchrony, it was present in 91% in A, 95% in B and 99% in C. Amongst patients in NYHA class III or IV, with a LVEF<35% and a QRS> 120 ms, 99% had dyssynchrony. Amongst those with a QRS< 120 ms, 91% had dyssynchrony. Across the study sample, CMR-TSI was related positively to left ventricular volumes (p < 0.0001) and inversely to LVEF (CMR-TSI = 178.3 e ((-0.033 LVEF)) ms, p < 0.0001).
Conclusion: Radial dyssynchrony is almost universal in patients with heart failure. This vies against the notion that a lack of response to CRT is related to a lack of dyssynchrony.
- cardiac-resynchronization therapy
- narrow QRS
- intraventricular dyssynchrony
- mechanical dyssynchrony
- dilated cardiomyopathy