Rate and extent of compensatory changes in energy intake and expenditure in response to altered exercise and diet composition in humans

R J Stubbs, D A Hughes, A M Johnstone, S Whybrow, N King, G W Horgan, J Blundell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

99 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We assessed the effect of no exercise (Nex; control) and high exercise level (Hex; ∼4 MJ/day) and two dietary manipulations [a high-fat diet (HF; 50% of energy, 700 kJ/100 g) and low-fat diet (LF; 20% of energy, 300 kJ/100 g)] on compensatory changes in energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) over 7-day periods. Eight lean men were each studied four times in a 2 × 2 randomized design. EI was directly quantified by weight of food consumed. EE was assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring. Body weight was measured daily. Mean daily EE was 17.6 and 11.5 MJ/day (P < 0.001) on the pooled Hex and Nex treatments, respectively. EI was higher on HF diets (13.4 MJ/day pooled) compared with the LF diets (9.0 MJ/day). Regression analysis showed that these energy imbalances induced significant compensatory changes in EB over time of ∼0.3-0.4 MJ/day (P < 0.05). These were due to changes in both EI and EE in the opposite direction to the perturbation in energy balance. These changes were significant, small but persistent, amounting to ∼0.2 and ∼0.35 MJ/day for EI and EE, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)R350-358
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume286
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2004

Fingerprint

Energy Intake
Energy Metabolism
Exercise
Diet
Fat-Restricted Diet
High Fat Diet
Heart Rate
Body Weight
Regression Analysis
Weights and Measures
Food
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Adult
  • Diet
  • Dietary Fats
  • Eating
  • Energy Intake
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Exercise
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Hunger
  • Male
  • Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Physical Fitness
  • Regression Analysis
  • Taste

Cite this

Rate and extent of compensatory changes in energy intake and expenditure in response to altered exercise and diet composition in humans. / Stubbs, R J; Hughes, D A; Johnstone, A M; Whybrow, S; King, N; Horgan, G W; Blundell, J.

In: American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, Vol. 286, No. 2, 02.2004, p. R350-358.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{1eb75c1ee0c94bee9a50123a8e836f13,
title = "Rate and extent of compensatory changes in energy intake and expenditure in response to altered exercise and diet composition in humans",
abstract = "We assessed the effect of no exercise (Nex; control) and high exercise level (Hex; ∼4 MJ/day) and two dietary manipulations [a high-fat diet (HF; 50{\%} of energy, 700 kJ/100 g) and low-fat diet (LF; 20{\%} of energy, 300 kJ/100 g)] on compensatory changes in energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) over 7-day periods. Eight lean men were each studied four times in a 2 × 2 randomized design. EI was directly quantified by weight of food consumed. EE was assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring. Body weight was measured daily. Mean daily EE was 17.6 and 11.5 MJ/day (P < 0.001) on the pooled Hex and Nex treatments, respectively. EI was higher on HF diets (13.4 MJ/day pooled) compared with the LF diets (9.0 MJ/day). Regression analysis showed that these energy imbalances induced significant compensatory changes in EB over time of ∼0.3-0.4 MJ/day (P < 0.05). These were due to changes in both EI and EE in the opposite direction to the perturbation in energy balance. These changes were significant, small but persistent, amounting to ∼0.2 and ∼0.35 MJ/day for EI and EE, respectively.",
keywords = "Adaptation, Physiological, Adult, Diet, Dietary Fats, Eating, Energy Intake, Energy Metabolism, Exercise, Heart Rate, Humans, Hunger, Male, Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Physical Fitness, Regression Analysis, Taste",
author = "Stubbs, {R J} and Hughes, {D A} and Johnstone, {A M} and S Whybrow and N King and Horgan, {G W} and J Blundell",
year = "2004",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1152/ajpregu.00196.2003",
language = "English",
volume = "286",
pages = "R350--358",
journal = "American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology",
issn = "0363-6119",
publisher = "American Physiological Society",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Rate and extent of compensatory changes in energy intake and expenditure in response to altered exercise and diet composition in humans

AU - Stubbs, R J

AU - Hughes, D A

AU - Johnstone, A M

AU - Whybrow, S

AU - King, N

AU - Horgan, G W

AU - Blundell, J

PY - 2004/2

Y1 - 2004/2

N2 - We assessed the effect of no exercise (Nex; control) and high exercise level (Hex; ∼4 MJ/day) and two dietary manipulations [a high-fat diet (HF; 50% of energy, 700 kJ/100 g) and low-fat diet (LF; 20% of energy, 300 kJ/100 g)] on compensatory changes in energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) over 7-day periods. Eight lean men were each studied four times in a 2 × 2 randomized design. EI was directly quantified by weight of food consumed. EE was assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring. Body weight was measured daily. Mean daily EE was 17.6 and 11.5 MJ/day (P < 0.001) on the pooled Hex and Nex treatments, respectively. EI was higher on HF diets (13.4 MJ/day pooled) compared with the LF diets (9.0 MJ/day). Regression analysis showed that these energy imbalances induced significant compensatory changes in EB over time of ∼0.3-0.4 MJ/day (P < 0.05). These were due to changes in both EI and EE in the opposite direction to the perturbation in energy balance. These changes were significant, small but persistent, amounting to ∼0.2 and ∼0.35 MJ/day for EI and EE, respectively.

AB - We assessed the effect of no exercise (Nex; control) and high exercise level (Hex; ∼4 MJ/day) and two dietary manipulations [a high-fat diet (HF; 50% of energy, 700 kJ/100 g) and low-fat diet (LF; 20% of energy, 300 kJ/100 g)] on compensatory changes in energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) over 7-day periods. Eight lean men were each studied four times in a 2 × 2 randomized design. EI was directly quantified by weight of food consumed. EE was assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring. Body weight was measured daily. Mean daily EE was 17.6 and 11.5 MJ/day (P < 0.001) on the pooled Hex and Nex treatments, respectively. EI was higher on HF diets (13.4 MJ/day pooled) compared with the LF diets (9.0 MJ/day). Regression analysis showed that these energy imbalances induced significant compensatory changes in EB over time of ∼0.3-0.4 MJ/day (P < 0.05). These were due to changes in both EI and EE in the opposite direction to the perturbation in energy balance. These changes were significant, small but persistent, amounting to ∼0.2 and ∼0.35 MJ/day for EI and EE, respectively.

KW - Adaptation, Physiological

KW - Adult

KW - Diet

KW - Dietary Fats

KW - Eating

KW - Energy Intake

KW - Energy Metabolism

KW - Exercise

KW - Heart Rate

KW - Humans

KW - Hunger

KW - Male

KW - Nutritional Physiological Phenomena

KW - Physical Fitness

KW - Regression Analysis

KW - Taste

U2 - 10.1152/ajpregu.00196.2003

DO - 10.1152/ajpregu.00196.2003

M3 - Article

VL - 286

SP - R350-358

JO - American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology

JF - American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology

SN - 0363-6119

IS - 2

ER -