Re-description of Cryptosporidium cuniculus Inman and Takeuchi, 1979 (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae)

morphology, biology and phylogeny

Guy Robinson (Corresponding Author), Steve Wright, Kristin Elwin, Stephen J Hadfield, Frank Katzer, Paul M Bartley, Paul R Hunter, Mintu Nath, Elisabeth A Innes, Rachel M Chalmers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To provide re-description of Cryptosporidium cuniculus Inman and Takeuchi, 1979 (synonymous with rabbit genotype), a species closely related to Cryptosporidium hominis, the morphology, natural and experimental host specificity, and genetic characterisation were investigated. The morphology and diagnostic characteristics are typical of other intestinal species of Cryptosporidium, albeit with slightly larger oocysts (5.55-6.40×5.02-5.92 μm; mean 5.98×5.38 μm; length:width=1.1; n=50). Natural hosts appear to be European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). Experimental infections have been established in weanling rabbits (O. cuniculus), immunosuppressed Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and immunosuppressed adult Porton strain mice (Mus musculus), but not in neonatal mice. Patterns of infection measured by oocyst shedding are significantly different compared with C. hominis, particularly in rabbits. Histological examination reveals endogenous stages in the brush border of the epithelium of the small intestinal villi, but clinical signs are absent. Inoculation of human HCT-8 cells results in discrete clusters of endogenous stages. A close relationship with C. hominis is inferred from molecular analyses at the ssrRNA, 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), actin, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP), 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60) genes and a region encoding a product of unknown function (LIB13). Sequences contained limited, consistent polymorphisms at the ssrRNA, HSP70 and actin genes, were identical at the COWP and LIB13 genes and demonstrated two unique families at the GP60 gene. Although genetically closely related, there are significant biological differences between C. cuniculus and C. hominis that support these protozoa being separate species. This is based on the current understanding of these organisms and relies on the assumption that mating between these species would not normally occur. If this is subsequently demonstrated their categorisation may need to be re-addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1539-1548
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal for Parasitology
Volume40
Issue number13
Early online date1 Jul 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010

Fingerprint

Cryptosporidiidae
Apicomplexa
Cryptosporidium
Phylogeny
Rabbits
Oocysts
Gerbillinae
Genes
Actins
HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins
Host Specificity
Intestinal Mucosa
Microvilli
Infection
Cuniculidae
Glycoproteins
Genotype

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Cryptosporidium/classification
  • DNA, Protozoan/chemistry
  • DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  • Genes, rRNA
  • Gerbillinae
  • Histocytochemistry
  • Host Specificity
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Mucosa/parasitology
  • Intestine, Small/parasitology
  • Mice
  • Microscopy
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phylogeny
  • Protozoan Proteins/genetics
  • RNA, Protozoan/genetics
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
  • Rabbits
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA

Cite this

Re-description of Cryptosporidium cuniculus Inman and Takeuchi, 1979 (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) : morphology, biology and phylogeny. / Robinson, Guy (Corresponding Author); Wright, Steve; Elwin, Kristin; Hadfield, Stephen J; Katzer, Frank; Bartley, Paul M; Hunter, Paul R; Nath, Mintu; Innes, Elisabeth A; Chalmers, Rachel M.

In: International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 40, No. 13, 11.2010, p. 1539-1548.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Robinson, G, Wright, S, Elwin, K, Hadfield, SJ, Katzer, F, Bartley, PM, Hunter, PR, Nath, M, Innes, EA & Chalmers, RM 2010, 'Re-description of Cryptosporidium cuniculus Inman and Takeuchi, 1979 (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae): morphology, biology and phylogeny', International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 40, no. 13, pp. 1539-1548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2010.05.010
Robinson, Guy ; Wright, Steve ; Elwin, Kristin ; Hadfield, Stephen J ; Katzer, Frank ; Bartley, Paul M ; Hunter, Paul R ; Nath, Mintu ; Innes, Elisabeth A ; Chalmers, Rachel M. / Re-description of Cryptosporidium cuniculus Inman and Takeuchi, 1979 (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) : morphology, biology and phylogeny. In: International Journal for Parasitology. 2010 ; Vol. 40, No. 13. pp. 1539-1548.
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abstract = "To provide re-description of Cryptosporidium cuniculus Inman and Takeuchi, 1979 (synonymous with rabbit genotype), a species closely related to Cryptosporidium hominis, the morphology, natural and experimental host specificity, and genetic characterisation were investigated. The morphology and diagnostic characteristics are typical of other intestinal species of Cryptosporidium, albeit with slightly larger oocysts (5.55-6.40×5.02-5.92 μm; mean 5.98×5.38 μm; length:width=1.1; n=50). Natural hosts appear to be European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). Experimental infections have been established in weanling rabbits (O. cuniculus), immunosuppressed Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and immunosuppressed adult Porton strain mice (Mus musculus), but not in neonatal mice. Patterns of infection measured by oocyst shedding are significantly different compared with C. hominis, particularly in rabbits. Histological examination reveals endogenous stages in the brush border of the epithelium of the small intestinal villi, but clinical signs are absent. Inoculation of human HCT-8 cells results in discrete clusters of endogenous stages. A close relationship with C. hominis is inferred from molecular analyses at the ssrRNA, 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), actin, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP), 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60) genes and a region encoding a product of unknown function (LIB13). Sequences contained limited, consistent polymorphisms at the ssrRNA, HSP70 and actin genes, were identical at the COWP and LIB13 genes and demonstrated two unique families at the GP60 gene. Although genetically closely related, there are significant biological differences between C. cuniculus and C. hominis that support these protozoa being separate species. This is based on the current understanding of these organisms and relies on the assumption that mating between these species would not normally occur. If this is subsequently demonstrated their categorisation may need to be re-addressed.",
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T1 - Re-description of Cryptosporidium cuniculus Inman and Takeuchi, 1979 (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae)

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AU - Robinson, Guy

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N1 - This research project was funded by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), UK and managed by the Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) under project DWI 70/2/241. Mintu Nath was funded from the Scottish Government Rural and Environment Research and Analysis Directorate. The views expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the DEFRA or the DWI. We thank Anglian Water for the provision of material and allowing the use of data; and Nigel Crouch, Jonathan Goss and Brian Campbell at the UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit for their technical assistance.

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N2 - To provide re-description of Cryptosporidium cuniculus Inman and Takeuchi, 1979 (synonymous with rabbit genotype), a species closely related to Cryptosporidium hominis, the morphology, natural and experimental host specificity, and genetic characterisation were investigated. The morphology and diagnostic characteristics are typical of other intestinal species of Cryptosporidium, albeit with slightly larger oocysts (5.55-6.40×5.02-5.92 μm; mean 5.98×5.38 μm; length:width=1.1; n=50). Natural hosts appear to be European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). Experimental infections have been established in weanling rabbits (O. cuniculus), immunosuppressed Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and immunosuppressed adult Porton strain mice (Mus musculus), but not in neonatal mice. Patterns of infection measured by oocyst shedding are significantly different compared with C. hominis, particularly in rabbits. Histological examination reveals endogenous stages in the brush border of the epithelium of the small intestinal villi, but clinical signs are absent. Inoculation of human HCT-8 cells results in discrete clusters of endogenous stages. A close relationship with C. hominis is inferred from molecular analyses at the ssrRNA, 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), actin, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP), 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60) genes and a region encoding a product of unknown function (LIB13). Sequences contained limited, consistent polymorphisms at the ssrRNA, HSP70 and actin genes, were identical at the COWP and LIB13 genes and demonstrated two unique families at the GP60 gene. Although genetically closely related, there are significant biological differences between C. cuniculus and C. hominis that support these protozoa being separate species. This is based on the current understanding of these organisms and relies on the assumption that mating between these species would not normally occur. If this is subsequently demonstrated their categorisation may need to be re-addressed.

AB - To provide re-description of Cryptosporidium cuniculus Inman and Takeuchi, 1979 (synonymous with rabbit genotype), a species closely related to Cryptosporidium hominis, the morphology, natural and experimental host specificity, and genetic characterisation were investigated. The morphology and diagnostic characteristics are typical of other intestinal species of Cryptosporidium, albeit with slightly larger oocysts (5.55-6.40×5.02-5.92 μm; mean 5.98×5.38 μm; length:width=1.1; n=50). Natural hosts appear to be European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). Experimental infections have been established in weanling rabbits (O. cuniculus), immunosuppressed Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and immunosuppressed adult Porton strain mice (Mus musculus), but not in neonatal mice. Patterns of infection measured by oocyst shedding are significantly different compared with C. hominis, particularly in rabbits. Histological examination reveals endogenous stages in the brush border of the epithelium of the small intestinal villi, but clinical signs are absent. Inoculation of human HCT-8 cells results in discrete clusters of endogenous stages. A close relationship with C. hominis is inferred from molecular analyses at the ssrRNA, 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), actin, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP), 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60) genes and a region encoding a product of unknown function (LIB13). Sequences contained limited, consistent polymorphisms at the ssrRNA, HSP70 and actin genes, were identical at the COWP and LIB13 genes and demonstrated two unique families at the GP60 gene. Although genetically closely related, there are significant biological differences between C. cuniculus and C. hominis that support these protozoa being separate species. This is based on the current understanding of these organisms and relies on the assumption that mating between these species would not normally occur. If this is subsequently demonstrated their categorisation may need to be re-addressed.

KW - Animals

KW - Cell Line

KW - Cluster Analysis

KW - Cryptosporidium/classification

KW - DNA, Protozoan/chemistry

KW - DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry

KW - Genes, rRNA

KW - Gerbillinae

KW - Histocytochemistry

KW - Host Specificity

KW - Humans

KW - Intestinal Mucosa/parasitology

KW - Intestine, Small/parasitology

KW - Mice

KW - Microscopy

KW - Molecular Sequence Data

KW - Phylogeny

KW - Protozoan Proteins/genetics

KW - RNA, Protozoan/genetics

KW - RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics

KW - Rabbits

KW - Sequence Analysis, DNA

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijpara.2010.05.010

DO - 10.1016/j.ijpara.2010.05.010

M3 - Article

VL - 40

SP - 1539

EP - 1548

JO - International Journal for Parasitology

JF - International Journal for Parasitology

SN - 0020-7519

IS - 13

ER -