Reactivity of dolomitizing fluids and Mg source evaluation of fault-controlled dolomitization at the Benicàssim outcrop analogue (Maestrat Basin, E Spain)

E. Gomez-Rivas, M. Corbella, J. D. Martin-Martin, S. L. Stafford, A. Teixell, P. D. Bons, A. Griera, E. Cardellach

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Abstract

The mechanisms responsible for the formation of huge volumes of dolomitized rocks associated with faults are not well understood. We present a case study for high-temperature dolomitization of an Early Cretaceous (Aptian–Albian) ramp in Benicàssim (Maestrat basin, E Spain). In this area, seismic-scale fault-controlled stratabound dolostone bodies extend over several kilometres away from large-scale faults. This work aims at evaluating different Mg sources for dolomitization, estimating the reactivity of dolomitizing fluids at variable temperature and quantifying the required versus available fluid volumes to account for the Benicàssim dolostones. Field relationships, stable 13C and 18O isotopes, as well as radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotopes, indicate that dolomitization at Benicàssim was produced by a high-temperature fluid (>80 °C). 13C and 18O isotopic compositions for dolomite vary from +0.5 to +2.9‰ V-PDB and from +21.1 to +24.3 V-SMOW, respectively. A Mg source analysis reveals that the most likely dolomitizing fluid was seawater-derived brine that interacted with underlying Triassic red beds and the Paleozoic basement. Geochemical models suggest that evolved seawater can be considerably more reactive than high-salinity brines, and the maximum reactivity occurs at about 100 °C. Mass-balance calculations indicate that interstitial fluids with high pressure and/or high temperature relative to the normal geothermal gradient cannot account for the volume of dolomite at Benicàssim. Instead a pervasive fluid circulation mechanism, like thermal convection, is required to provide a sufficient volume of dolomitizing fluid, which most likely occurred during the Late Cretaceous post-rift stage of the Maestrat basin. This study illustrates the importance of fluid budget quantification to critically evaluate genetic models for dolomitization and other diagenetic processes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-42
Number of pages17
JournalMarine and Petroleum Geology
Volume55
Early online date28 Dec 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2014

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outcrops
dolomitization
Spain
outcrop
reactivity
analogs
fluid
evaluation
fluids
basin
dolostone
isotopes
dolomite
high temperature fluids
brines
isotope
Cretaceous
seawater
mass balance
thermal convection

Keywords

  • Hydrothermal dolomitization
  • Stratabound dolostone
  • Mg source
  • Fluid reactivity
  • Maestrat basin
  • Carbonate reservoir quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology

Cite this

Reactivity of dolomitizing fluids and Mg source evaluation of fault-controlled dolomitization at the Benicàssim outcrop analogue (Maestrat Basin, E Spain). / Gomez-Rivas, E.; Corbella, M.; Martin-Martin, J. D.; Stafford, S. L.; Teixell, A.; Bons, P. D.; Griera, A.; Cardellach, E.

In: Marine and Petroleum Geology, Vol. 55, 08.2014, p. 26-42.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gomez-Rivas, E. ; Corbella, M. ; Martin-Martin, J. D. ; Stafford, S. L. ; Teixell, A. ; Bons, P. D. ; Griera, A. ; Cardellach, E. / Reactivity of dolomitizing fluids and Mg source evaluation of fault-controlled dolomitization at the Benicàssim outcrop analogue (Maestrat Basin, E Spain). In: Marine and Petroleum Geology. 2014 ; Vol. 55. pp. 26-42.
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abstract = "The mechanisms responsible for the formation of huge volumes of dolomitized rocks associated with faults are not well understood. We present a case study for high-temperature dolomitization of an Early Cretaceous (Aptian–Albian) ramp in Benic{\`a}ssim (Maestrat basin, E Spain). In this area, seismic-scale fault-controlled stratabound dolostone bodies extend over several kilometres away from large-scale faults. This work aims at evaluating different Mg sources for dolomitization, estimating the reactivity of dolomitizing fluids at variable temperature and quantifying the required versus available fluid volumes to account for the Benic{\`a}ssim dolostones. Field relationships, stable 13C and 18O isotopes, as well as radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotopes, indicate that dolomitization at Benic{\`a}ssim was produced by a high-temperature fluid (>80 °C). 13C and 18O isotopic compositions for dolomite vary from +0.5 to +2.9‰ V-PDB and from +21.1 to +24.3 V-SMOW, respectively. A Mg source analysis reveals that the most likely dolomitizing fluid was seawater-derived brine that interacted with underlying Triassic red beds and the Paleozoic basement. Geochemical models suggest that evolved seawater can be considerably more reactive than high-salinity brines, and the maximum reactivity occurs at about 100 °C. Mass-balance calculations indicate that interstitial fluids with high pressure and/or high temperature relative to the normal geothermal gradient cannot account for the volume of dolomite at Benic{\`a}ssim. Instead a pervasive fluid circulation mechanism, like thermal convection, is required to provide a sufficient volume of dolomitizing fluid, which most likely occurred during the Late Cretaceous post-rift stage of the Maestrat basin. This study illustrates the importance of fluid budget quantification to critically evaluate genetic models for dolomitization and other diagenetic processes.",
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AU - Corbella, M.

AU - Martin-Martin, J. D.

AU - Stafford, S. L.

AU - Teixell, A.

AU - Bons, P. D.

AU - Griera, A.

AU - Cardellach, E.

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N2 - The mechanisms responsible for the formation of huge volumes of dolomitized rocks associated with faults are not well understood. We present a case study for high-temperature dolomitization of an Early Cretaceous (Aptian–Albian) ramp in Benicàssim (Maestrat basin, E Spain). In this area, seismic-scale fault-controlled stratabound dolostone bodies extend over several kilometres away from large-scale faults. This work aims at evaluating different Mg sources for dolomitization, estimating the reactivity of dolomitizing fluids at variable temperature and quantifying the required versus available fluid volumes to account for the Benicàssim dolostones. Field relationships, stable 13C and 18O isotopes, as well as radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotopes, indicate that dolomitization at Benicàssim was produced by a high-temperature fluid (>80 °C). 13C and 18O isotopic compositions for dolomite vary from +0.5 to +2.9‰ V-PDB and from +21.1 to +24.3 V-SMOW, respectively. A Mg source analysis reveals that the most likely dolomitizing fluid was seawater-derived brine that interacted with underlying Triassic red beds and the Paleozoic basement. Geochemical models suggest that evolved seawater can be considerably more reactive than high-salinity brines, and the maximum reactivity occurs at about 100 °C. Mass-balance calculations indicate that interstitial fluids with high pressure and/or high temperature relative to the normal geothermal gradient cannot account for the volume of dolomite at Benicàssim. Instead a pervasive fluid circulation mechanism, like thermal convection, is required to provide a sufficient volume of dolomitizing fluid, which most likely occurred during the Late Cretaceous post-rift stage of the Maestrat basin. This study illustrates the importance of fluid budget quantification to critically evaluate genetic models for dolomitization and other diagenetic processes.

AB - The mechanisms responsible for the formation of huge volumes of dolomitized rocks associated with faults are not well understood. We present a case study for high-temperature dolomitization of an Early Cretaceous (Aptian–Albian) ramp in Benicàssim (Maestrat basin, E Spain). In this area, seismic-scale fault-controlled stratabound dolostone bodies extend over several kilometres away from large-scale faults. This work aims at evaluating different Mg sources for dolomitization, estimating the reactivity of dolomitizing fluids at variable temperature and quantifying the required versus available fluid volumes to account for the Benicàssim dolostones. Field relationships, stable 13C and 18O isotopes, as well as radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotopes, indicate that dolomitization at Benicàssim was produced by a high-temperature fluid (>80 °C). 13C and 18O isotopic compositions for dolomite vary from +0.5 to +2.9‰ V-PDB and from +21.1 to +24.3 V-SMOW, respectively. A Mg source analysis reveals that the most likely dolomitizing fluid was seawater-derived brine that interacted with underlying Triassic red beds and the Paleozoic basement. Geochemical models suggest that evolved seawater can be considerably more reactive than high-salinity brines, and the maximum reactivity occurs at about 100 °C. Mass-balance calculations indicate that interstitial fluids with high pressure and/or high temperature relative to the normal geothermal gradient cannot account for the volume of dolomite at Benicàssim. Instead a pervasive fluid circulation mechanism, like thermal convection, is required to provide a sufficient volume of dolomitizing fluid, which most likely occurred during the Late Cretaceous post-rift stage of the Maestrat basin. This study illustrates the importance of fluid budget quantification to critically evaluate genetic models for dolomitization and other diagenetic processes.

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KW - Stratabound dolostone

KW - Mg source

KW - Fluid reactivity

KW - Maestrat basin

KW - Carbonate reservoir quality

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JO - Marine and Petroleum Geology

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