Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders

A Martel (Corresponding Author), M Blooi, C Adriaensen, P Van Rooij, W Beukema, M C Fisher, R A Farrer, B R Schmidt, U Tobler, K Goka, K R Lips, C Muletz, K R Zamudio, J Bosch, S Lötters, E Wombwell, T W J Garner, A A Cunningham, A Spitzen-van der Sluijs, S Salvidio & 7 others R Ducatelle, K Nishikawa, T T Nguyen, J E Kolby, I Van Bocxlaer, F Bossuyt, F Pasmans

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Abstract

Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into naïve European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)630-631
Number of pages2
JournalScience
Volume346
Issue number6209
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2014

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Urodela
Amphibians
Fungi
Biodiversity
Emerging Communicable Diseases
Salamandridae
Internationality
Population
Virulence
Infection

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Martel, A., Blooi, M., Adriaensen, C., Van Rooij, P., Beukema, W., Fisher, M. C., ... Pasmans, F. (2014). Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders. Science, 346(6209), 630-631. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1258268

Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders. / Martel, A (Corresponding Author); Blooi, M; Adriaensen, C; Van Rooij, P; Beukema, W; Fisher, M C; Farrer, R A; Schmidt, B R; Tobler, U; Goka, K; Lips, K R; Muletz, C; Zamudio, K R; Bosch, J; Lötters, S; Wombwell, E; Garner, T W J; Cunningham, A A; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A; Salvidio, S; Ducatelle, R; Nishikawa, K; Nguyen, T T; Kolby, J E; Van Bocxlaer, I; Bossuyt, F; Pasmans, F.

In: Science, Vol. 346, No. 6209, 31.10.2014, p. 630-631.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Martel, A, Blooi, M, Adriaensen, C, Van Rooij, P, Beukema, W, Fisher, MC, Farrer, RA, Schmidt, BR, Tobler, U, Goka, K, Lips, KR, Muletz, C, Zamudio, KR, Bosch, J, Lötters, S, Wombwell, E, Garner, TWJ, Cunningham, AA, Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A, Salvidio, S, Ducatelle, R, Nishikawa, K, Nguyen, TT, Kolby, JE, Van Bocxlaer, I, Bossuyt, F & Pasmans, F 2014, 'Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders', Science, vol. 346, no. 6209, pp. 630-631. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1258268
Martel A, Blooi M, Adriaensen C, Van Rooij P, Beukema W, Fisher MC et al. Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders. Science. 2014 Oct 31;346(6209):630-631. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1258268
Martel, A ; Blooi, M ; Adriaensen, C ; Van Rooij, P ; Beukema, W ; Fisher, M C ; Farrer, R A ; Schmidt, B R ; Tobler, U ; Goka, K ; Lips, K R ; Muletz, C ; Zamudio, K R ; Bosch, J ; Lötters, S ; Wombwell, E ; Garner, T W J ; Cunningham, A A ; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A ; Salvidio, S ; Ducatelle, R ; Nishikawa, K ; Nguyen, T T ; Kolby, J E ; Van Bocxlaer, I ; Bossuyt, F ; Pasmans, F. / Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders. In: Science. 2014 ; Vol. 346, No. 6209. pp. 630-631.
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abstract = "Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into na{\"i}ve European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss.",
author = "A Martel and M Blooi and C Adriaensen and {Van Rooij}, P and W Beukema and Fisher, {M C} and Farrer, {R A} and Schmidt, {B R} and U Tobler and K Goka and Lips, {K R} and C Muletz and Zamudio, {K R} and J Bosch and S L{\"o}tters and E Wombwell and Garner, {T W J} and Cunningham, {A A} and {Spitzen-van der Sluijs}, A and S Salvidio and R Ducatelle and K Nishikawa and Nguyen, {T T} and Kolby, {J E} and {Van Bocxlaer}, I and F Bossuyt and F Pasmans",
note = "We thank M. Schenkel and J. Beukema for providing samples and the National Museum of Natural History–Naturalis, Leiden, Netherlands, for providing museum specimens. We thank the many amphibian breeders (including S. Bogaerts, M. Sparreboom, H. Janssen, F. Maillet, A. Jamin, and S. Voitel) who provided offspring to conduct the infection experiments. Financial support was partly provided by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, project grant FC1195. M.B. is funded by a Dehousse grant from the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp. P.V.R. is funded by Ghent University Special Research Fund (BOF13/PDO/130). F.P. and T.W.J.G. are funded by the Morris Animal Foundation (D12z0-002). M.C.F. and T.W.J.G. are funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). R.A.F. is supported by the Wellcome Trust. U.T. and B.R.S. are funded by the Vontobel Stiftung, Janggen-P{\"o}hn Stiftung, Basler Stiftung f{\"u}r biologische Forschung, Stiftung Dr. Joachim De Giacomi, Zoo Z{\"u}rich, Gr{\"u}n Stadt Z{\"u}rich, European Union of Aquarium Curators, and Z{\"u}rcher Tierschutz. J.B. is funded by Fundaci{\'o}n General CSIC and Banco Santander. E.W. is funded by Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-NERC Interdisciplinary Ph.D. studentship. A.A.C. is supported by a Royal Society Wolfson research merit award. K.N. is funded by grants from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Japan (nos. 20770066 and 23770084) and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) AA Core-to-Core program Type B. Asia-Africa Science Platforms. T.T.N. is funded by the JSPS RONPAKU program. F.B. is supported by European Research Council Starting Grant 204509 [project Tracing Antimicrobial Peptides and Pheromones in the Amphibian Skin (TAPAS)]. I.V.B is supported by a postdoctoral Fellowship from the Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Vlaanderen (FWO). All data described in the paper are presented in the supplementary materials.",
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T1 - Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders

AU - Martel, A

AU - Blooi, M

AU - Adriaensen, C

AU - Van Rooij, P

AU - Beukema, W

AU - Fisher, M C

AU - Farrer, R A

AU - Schmidt, B R

AU - Tobler, U

AU - Goka, K

AU - Lips, K R

AU - Muletz, C

AU - Zamudio, K R

AU - Bosch, J

AU - Lötters, S

AU - Wombwell, E

AU - Garner, T W J

AU - Cunningham, A A

AU - Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A

AU - Salvidio, S

AU - Ducatelle, R

AU - Nishikawa, K

AU - Nguyen, T T

AU - Kolby, J E

AU - Van Bocxlaer, I

AU - Bossuyt, F

AU - Pasmans, F

N1 - We thank M. Schenkel and J. Beukema for providing samples and the National Museum of Natural History–Naturalis, Leiden, Netherlands, for providing museum specimens. We thank the many amphibian breeders (including S. Bogaerts, M. Sparreboom, H. Janssen, F. Maillet, A. Jamin, and S. Voitel) who provided offspring to conduct the infection experiments. Financial support was partly provided by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, project grant FC1195. M.B. is funded by a Dehousse grant from the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp. P.V.R. is funded by Ghent University Special Research Fund (BOF13/PDO/130). F.P. and T.W.J.G. are funded by the Morris Animal Foundation (D12z0-002). M.C.F. and T.W.J.G. are funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). R.A.F. is supported by the Wellcome Trust. U.T. and B.R.S. are funded by the Vontobel Stiftung, Janggen-Pöhn Stiftung, Basler Stiftung für biologische Forschung, Stiftung Dr. Joachim De Giacomi, Zoo Zürich, Grün Stadt Zürich, European Union of Aquarium Curators, and Zürcher Tierschutz. J.B. is funded by Fundación General CSIC and Banco Santander. E.W. is funded by Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-NERC Interdisciplinary Ph.D. studentship. A.A.C. is supported by a Royal Society Wolfson research merit award. K.N. is funded by grants from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Japan (nos. 20770066 and 23770084) and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) AA Core-to-Core program Type B. Asia-Africa Science Platforms. T.T.N. is funded by the JSPS RONPAKU program. F.B. is supported by European Research Council Starting Grant 204509 [project Tracing Antimicrobial Peptides and Pheromones in the Amphibian Skin (TAPAS)]. I.V.B is supported by a postdoctoral Fellowship from the Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Vlaanderen (FWO). All data described in the paper are presented in the supplementary materials.

PY - 2014/10/31

Y1 - 2014/10/31

N2 - Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into naïve European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss.

AB - Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into naïve European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss.

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DO - 10.1126/science.1258268

M3 - Article

VL - 346

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EP - 631

JO - Science

JF - Science

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