Red mark syndrome in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: investigation of immune responses in lesions using histology, immunohistochemistry and analysis of immune gene expression

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Abstract

Red mark syndrome (RMS) is an economically significant disease which affects farmed rainbow trout in the United Kingdom, in the US and in mainland Europe. From the pattern of incidence, it appears to be transmissable, although no causative agent has yet been identified. RMS presents as a severe lymphocytic infiltration centred on the dermis and an alternative, host-focused approach was taken to understand the disease through investigating immune responses occurring in the lesion. Lesion and non-lesion skin at different stages of lesion development were examined using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections. Expression of immune-related genes was compared between lesion and non-lesion skin. Investigation of early stage lesions suggested that the initial immune response is targeted at the region of the scale pocket, with lymphocyte infiltration and anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α staining of the stratum spongiosum, and increased numbers of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-positive cells immediately adjacent to the scale pocket. Gene expression analysis suggested a counterbalancing T helper (Th)1 and T regulatory (Treg) - type response is occurring in the lesion, with repression of Th2 and Th17-type responses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1119-11130
Number of pages12
JournalFish & Shellfish Immunology
Volume34
Issue number5
Early online date9 Feb 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2013

Fingerprint

Histology
histology
immune response
Infiltration
Gene expression
lesion
lesions (animal)
rainbow
gene expression
immunohistochemistry
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Skin
Lymphocytes
Paraffin
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Genes
Cells
skin (animal)
skin
infiltration

Keywords

  • animals
  • antigen-presenting cells
  • fish diseases
  • gene expression regulation
  • major histocompatibility complex
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss
  • polymerase chain reaction
  • tumor necrosis factor-alpha
  • rainbow trout
  • red mark syndrome
  • lesion
  • gene expression

Cite this

@article{61903b90e00543fe84e5cc2ed3906d8b,
title = "Red mark syndrome in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: investigation of immune responses in lesions using histology, immunohistochemistry and analysis of immune gene expression",
abstract = "Red mark syndrome (RMS) is an economically significant disease which affects farmed rainbow trout in the United Kingdom, in the US and in mainland Europe. From the pattern of incidence, it appears to be transmissable, although no causative agent has yet been identified. RMS presents as a severe lymphocytic infiltration centred on the dermis and an alternative, host-focused approach was taken to understand the disease through investigating immune responses occurring in the lesion. Lesion and non-lesion skin at different stages of lesion development were examined using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections. Expression of immune-related genes was compared between lesion and non-lesion skin. Investigation of early stage lesions suggested that the initial immune response is targeted at the region of the scale pocket, with lymphocyte infiltration and anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α staining of the stratum spongiosum, and increased numbers of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-positive cells immediately adjacent to the scale pocket. Gene expression analysis suggested a counterbalancing T helper (Th)1 and T regulatory (Treg) - type response is occurring in the lesion, with repression of Th2 and Th17-type responses.",
keywords = "animals, antigen-presenting cells, fish diseases, gene expression regulation, major histocompatibility complex, Oncorhynchus mykiss, polymerase chain reaction, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, rainbow trout, red mark syndrome, lesion, gene expression",
author = "{\'U} McCarthy and E Casadei and T Wang and Secombes, {C J}",
note = "Crown Copyright {\circledC} 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
year = "2013",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.fsi.2013.01.019",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "1119--11130",
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T1 - Red mark syndrome in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

T2 - investigation of immune responses in lesions using histology, immunohistochemistry and analysis of immune gene expression

AU - McCarthy, Ú

AU - Casadei, E

AU - Wang, T

AU - Secombes, C J

N1 - Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PY - 2013/5

Y1 - 2013/5

N2 - Red mark syndrome (RMS) is an economically significant disease which affects farmed rainbow trout in the United Kingdom, in the US and in mainland Europe. From the pattern of incidence, it appears to be transmissable, although no causative agent has yet been identified. RMS presents as a severe lymphocytic infiltration centred on the dermis and an alternative, host-focused approach was taken to understand the disease through investigating immune responses occurring in the lesion. Lesion and non-lesion skin at different stages of lesion development were examined using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections. Expression of immune-related genes was compared between lesion and non-lesion skin. Investigation of early stage lesions suggested that the initial immune response is targeted at the region of the scale pocket, with lymphocyte infiltration and anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α staining of the stratum spongiosum, and increased numbers of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-positive cells immediately adjacent to the scale pocket. Gene expression analysis suggested a counterbalancing T helper (Th)1 and T regulatory (Treg) - type response is occurring in the lesion, with repression of Th2 and Th17-type responses.

AB - Red mark syndrome (RMS) is an economically significant disease which affects farmed rainbow trout in the United Kingdom, in the US and in mainland Europe. From the pattern of incidence, it appears to be transmissable, although no causative agent has yet been identified. RMS presents as a severe lymphocytic infiltration centred on the dermis and an alternative, host-focused approach was taken to understand the disease through investigating immune responses occurring in the lesion. Lesion and non-lesion skin at different stages of lesion development were examined using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections. Expression of immune-related genes was compared between lesion and non-lesion skin. Investigation of early stage lesions suggested that the initial immune response is targeted at the region of the scale pocket, with lymphocyte infiltration and anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α staining of the stratum spongiosum, and increased numbers of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II-positive cells immediately adjacent to the scale pocket. Gene expression analysis suggested a counterbalancing T helper (Th)1 and T regulatory (Treg) - type response is occurring in the lesion, with repression of Th2 and Th17-type responses.

KW - animals

KW - antigen-presenting cells

KW - fish diseases

KW - gene expression regulation

KW - major histocompatibility complex

KW - Oncorhynchus mykiss

KW - polymerase chain reaction

KW - tumor necrosis factor-alpha

KW - rainbow trout

KW - red mark syndrome

KW - lesion

KW - gene expression

U2 - 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.01.019

DO - 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.01.019

M3 - Article

VL - 34

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EP - 11130

JO - Fish & Shellfish Immunology

JF - Fish & Shellfish Immunology

SN - 1050-4648

IS - 5

ER -