Responses in gut hormones and hunger to diets with either high protein or a mixture of protein plus free amino acids supplied under weight-loss conditions

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Abstract

High-protein diets are an effective means for weight loss (WL), but the mechanisms are unclear. One hypothesis relates to the release of gut hormones by either protein or amino acids (AA). The present study involved overweight and obese male volunteers (n 18, mean BMI 36·8 kg/m2) who consumed a maintenance diet for 7 d followed by fully randomised 10 d treatments with three iso-energetic WL diets, i.e. with either normal protein (NP, 15 % of energy) or high protein (HP, 30 %) or with a combination of protein and free AA, each 15 % of energy (NPAA). Psychometric ratings of appetite were recorded hourly. On day 10, plasma samples were taken at 30 min intervals over two consecutive 5 h periods (covering post-breakfast and post-lunch) and analysed for AA, glucose and hormones (insulin, total glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, active ghrelin and total peptide YY (PYY)) plus leucine kinetics (first 5 h only). Composite hunger was 16 % lower for the HP diet than for the NP diet (P< 0·01) in the 5 h period after both meals. Plasma essential AA concentrations were greatest within 60 min of each meal for the NPAA diet, but remained elevated for 3-5 h after the HP diet. The three WL diets showed no difference for either fasting concentrations or the postprandial net incremental AUC (net AUCi) for insulin, ghrelin or PYY. No strong correlations were observed between composite hunger scores and net AUCi for either AA or gut peptides. Regulation of hunger may involve subtle interactions, and a range of signals may need to be integrated to produce the overall response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1254-1270
Number of pages17
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume113
Issue number8
Early online date26 Mar 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2015

Fingerprint

Hunger
Weight Loss
Hormones
Diet
Amino Acids
Peptide YY
Reducing Diet
Proteins
Ghrelin
Meals
Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
Insulin
Lunch
Essential Amino Acids
Breakfast
Appetite
Psychometrics
Leucine
Area Under Curve
Volunteers

Keywords

  • high-protein diets
  • weight loss
  • amino acids
  • composite hunger
  • leucine kinetics
  • gut hormones

Cite this

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title = "Responses in gut hormones and hunger to diets with either high protein or a mixture of protein plus free amino acids supplied under weight-loss conditions",
abstract = "High-protein diets are an effective means for weight loss (WL), but the mechanisms are unclear. One hypothesis relates to the release of gut hormones by either protein or amino acids (AA). The present study involved overweight and obese male volunteers (n 18, mean BMI 36·8 kg/m2) who consumed a maintenance diet for 7 d followed by fully randomised 10 d treatments with three iso-energetic WL diets, i.e. with either normal protein (NP, 15 {\%} of energy) or high protein (HP, 30 {\%}) or with a combination of protein and free AA, each 15 {\%} of energy (NPAA). Psychometric ratings of appetite were recorded hourly. On day 10, plasma samples were taken at 30 min intervals over two consecutive 5 h periods (covering post-breakfast and post-lunch) and analysed for AA, glucose and hormones (insulin, total glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, active ghrelin and total peptide YY (PYY)) plus leucine kinetics (first 5 h only). Composite hunger was 16 {\%} lower for the HP diet than for the NP diet (P< 0·01) in the 5 h period after both meals. Plasma essential AA concentrations were greatest within 60 min of each meal for the NPAA diet, but remained elevated for 3-5 h after the HP diet. The three WL diets showed no difference for either fasting concentrations or the postprandial net incremental AUC (net AUCi) for insulin, ghrelin or PYY. No strong correlations were observed between composite hunger scores and net AUCi for either AA or gut peptides. Regulation of hunger may involve subtle interactions, and a range of signals may need to be integrated to produce the overall response.",
keywords = "high-protein diets, weight loss, amino acids, composite hunger, leucine kinetics, gut hormones",
author = "Gerald Lobley and Grietje Holtrop and Graham Horgan and Bremner, {David M} and Fyfe, {Claire Louise} and Alexandra Johnstone",
note = "Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge Jean Bryce, Nina Lamza and Karen Taylor at the Human Nutrition Unit at RINH for their support for meal preparation. The authors also acknowledge Vivien Buchan (multiplex hormone assays), A. Graham Calder and Susan Anderson (both stable isotope analyses) for vital analytical inputs. The present study was funded as part of the core grant from the Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS) of the Scottish Government to the Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen. The authors’ contributions are as follows: G. E. L., A. M. J. and G. H. were responsible for the study concept and design; A. M. J., G. E. L., D. M. B. and C. F. were responsible for the data collection and collation; G. E. L., G. W. H. and G. H. were responsible for the data analysis and statistical matters; G. E. L., A. M. J., G.W. H. and G. H. were responsible for the first draft and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Responses in gut hormones and hunger to diets with either high protein or a mixture of protein plus free amino acids supplied under weight-loss conditions

AU - Lobley, Gerald

AU - Holtrop, Grietje

AU - Horgan, Graham

AU - Bremner, David M

AU - Fyfe, Claire Louise

AU - Johnstone, Alexandra

N1 - Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge Jean Bryce, Nina Lamza and Karen Taylor at the Human Nutrition Unit at RINH for their support for meal preparation. The authors also acknowledge Vivien Buchan (multiplex hormone assays), A. Graham Calder and Susan Anderson (both stable isotope analyses) for vital analytical inputs. The present study was funded as part of the core grant from the Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS) of the Scottish Government to the Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen. The authors’ contributions are as follows: G. E. L., A. M. J. and G. H. were responsible for the study concept and design; A. M. J., G. E. L., D. M. B. and C. F. were responsible for the data collection and collation; G. E. L., G. W. H. and G. H. were responsible for the data analysis and statistical matters; G. E. L., A. M. J., G.W. H. and G. H. were responsible for the first draft and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content

PY - 2015/4

Y1 - 2015/4

N2 - High-protein diets are an effective means for weight loss (WL), but the mechanisms are unclear. One hypothesis relates to the release of gut hormones by either protein or amino acids (AA). The present study involved overweight and obese male volunteers (n 18, mean BMI 36·8 kg/m2) who consumed a maintenance diet for 7 d followed by fully randomised 10 d treatments with three iso-energetic WL diets, i.e. with either normal protein (NP, 15 % of energy) or high protein (HP, 30 %) or with a combination of protein and free AA, each 15 % of energy (NPAA). Psychometric ratings of appetite were recorded hourly. On day 10, plasma samples were taken at 30 min intervals over two consecutive 5 h periods (covering post-breakfast and post-lunch) and analysed for AA, glucose and hormones (insulin, total glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, active ghrelin and total peptide YY (PYY)) plus leucine kinetics (first 5 h only). Composite hunger was 16 % lower for the HP diet than for the NP diet (P< 0·01) in the 5 h period after both meals. Plasma essential AA concentrations were greatest within 60 min of each meal for the NPAA diet, but remained elevated for 3-5 h after the HP diet. The three WL diets showed no difference for either fasting concentrations or the postprandial net incremental AUC (net AUCi) for insulin, ghrelin or PYY. No strong correlations were observed between composite hunger scores and net AUCi for either AA or gut peptides. Regulation of hunger may involve subtle interactions, and a range of signals may need to be integrated to produce the overall response.

AB - High-protein diets are an effective means for weight loss (WL), but the mechanisms are unclear. One hypothesis relates to the release of gut hormones by either protein or amino acids (AA). The present study involved overweight and obese male volunteers (n 18, mean BMI 36·8 kg/m2) who consumed a maintenance diet for 7 d followed by fully randomised 10 d treatments with three iso-energetic WL diets, i.e. with either normal protein (NP, 15 % of energy) or high protein (HP, 30 %) or with a combination of protein and free AA, each 15 % of energy (NPAA). Psychometric ratings of appetite were recorded hourly. On day 10, plasma samples were taken at 30 min intervals over two consecutive 5 h periods (covering post-breakfast and post-lunch) and analysed for AA, glucose and hormones (insulin, total glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, active ghrelin and total peptide YY (PYY)) plus leucine kinetics (first 5 h only). Composite hunger was 16 % lower for the HP diet than for the NP diet (P< 0·01) in the 5 h period after both meals. Plasma essential AA concentrations were greatest within 60 min of each meal for the NPAA diet, but remained elevated for 3-5 h after the HP diet. The three WL diets showed no difference for either fasting concentrations or the postprandial net incremental AUC (net AUCi) for insulin, ghrelin or PYY. No strong correlations were observed between composite hunger scores and net AUCi for either AA or gut peptides. Regulation of hunger may involve subtle interactions, and a range of signals may need to be integrated to produce the overall response.

KW - high-protein diets

KW - weight loss

KW - amino acids

KW - composite hunger

KW - leucine kinetics

KW - gut hormones

U2 - 10.1017/S0007114515000069

DO - 10.1017/S0007114515000069

M3 - Article

C2 - 25809236

VL - 113

SP - 1254

EP - 1270

JO - British Journal of Nutrition

JF - British Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0007-1145

IS - 8

ER -