Reversible DNA methylation regulates seasonal photoperiodic time measurement

Tyler J. Stevenson, Brian J. Prendergast

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In seasonally breeding vertebrates, changes in day length induce categorically distinct behavioral and reproductive phenotypes via thyroid hormone-dependent mechanisms. Winter photoperiods inhibit reproductive neuroendocrine function but cannot sustain this inhibition beyond 6 mo, ensuring vernal reproductive recrudescence. This genomic plasticity suggests a role for epigenetics in the establishment of seasonal reproductive phenotypes. Here, we report that DNA methylation of the proximal promoter for the type III deiodinase (dio3) gene in the hamster hypothalamus is reversible and critical for photoperiodic time measurement. Short photoperiods and winter-like melatonin inhibited hypothalamic DNA methyltransferase expression and reduced dio3 promoter DNA methylation, which up-regulated dio3 expression and induced gonadal regression. Hypermethylation attenuated reproductive responses to short photoperiods. Vernal refractoriness to short photoperiods reestablished summer-like methylation of the dio3 promoter, dio3 expression, and reproductive competence, revealing a dynamic and reversible mechanism of DNA methylation in the mammalian brain that plays a central role in physiological orientation in time.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16651-16656
Number of pages6
JournalPNAS
Volume110
Issue number41
Early online date25 Sep 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Oct 2013

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Photoperiod
DNA Methylation
Phenotype
Methyltransferases
Melatonin
Thyroid Hormones
Epigenomics
Cricetinae
Mental Competency
Methylation
Hypothalamus
Breeding
Vertebrates
Recurrence
DNA
Brain
Genes

Cite this

Reversible DNA methylation regulates seasonal photoperiodic time measurement. / Stevenson, Tyler J.; Prendergast, Brian J.

In: PNAS, Vol. 110, No. 41, 08.10.2013, p. 16651-16656.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stevenson, Tyler J. ; Prendergast, Brian J. / Reversible DNA methylation regulates seasonal photoperiodic time measurement. In: PNAS. 2013 ; Vol. 110, No. 41. pp. 16651-16656.
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