Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed and food

Helle Katrine Knutsen, Jan Alexander, Lars Barregård, Margherita Bignami, Beat Brüschweiler, Sandra Ceccatelli, Bruce Cottrill, Michael Dinovi, Lutz Edler, Bettina Grasl-Kraupp, Christer Hogstrand, Carlo Stefano Nebbia, Isabelle P Oswald, Annette Petersen, Martin Rose, Alain-Claude Roudot, Tanja Schwerdtle, Christiane Vleminckx, Günter Vollmer, Heather Wallace & 19 others Peter Fürst, Helen Håkansson, Thorhallur Halldorsson, Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Raimo Pohjanvirta, Lars Rylander, Andrew Smith, Henk van Loveren, Ine Waalkens-Berendsen, Marco Zeilmaker, Marco Binaglia, José Ángel Gómez Ruiz, Zsuzsanna Horváth, Eugen Christoph, Laura Ciccolallo, Luisa Ramos Bordajandi, Hans Steinkellner, Laurentius (Ron) Hoogenboom, EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

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Abstract

The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs in feed and food. The data from experimental animal and epidemiological studies were reviewed and it was decided to base the human risk assessment on effects observed in humans and to use animal data as supportive evidence. The critical effect was on semen quality, following pre- and postnatal exposure. The critical study showed a NOAEL of 7.0 pg WHO2005-TEQ/g fat in blood sampled at age 9 years based on PCDD/F-TEQs. No association was observed when including DL-PCB-TEQs. Using toxicokinetic modelling and taking into account the exposure from breastfeeding and a twofold higher intake during childhood, it was estimated that daily exposure in adolescents and adults should be below 0.25 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. The CONTAM Panel established a TWI of 2 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. With occurrence and consumption data from European countries, the mean and P95 intake of total TEQ by Adolescents, Adults, Elderly and Very Elderly varied between, respectively, 2.1 to 10.5, and 5.3 to 30.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/week, implying a considerable exceedance of the TWI. Toddlers and Other Children showed a higher exposure than older age groups, but this was accounted for when deriving the TWI. Exposure to PCDD/F-TEQ only was on average 2.4- and 2.7-fold lower for mean and P95 exposure than for total TEQ. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs are transferred to milk and eggs, and accumulate in fatty tissues and liver. Transfer rates and bioconcentration factors were identified for various species. The CONTAM Panel was not able to identify reference values in most farm and companion animals with the exception of NOAELs for mink, chicken and some fish species. The estimated exposure from feed for these species does not imply a risk.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere05333
Number of pages331
JournalEFSA Journal
Volume16
Issue number11
Early online date20 Nov 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2018

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polychlorinated dibenzodioxins
animal and human health
dioxins
no observed adverse effect level
toddlers
bioaccumulation factor
mink
breast feeding
farmed animal species
childhood
epidemiological studies
normal values
pets
pharmacokinetics
risk assessment
laboratory animals
semen
chickens
milk
liver

Keywords

  • Dioxins
  • PCDD/Fs
  • DL-PCBs
  • food
  • feed
  • risk assessment
  • transfer

Cite this

Knutsen, H. K., Alexander, J., Barregård, L., Bignami, M., Brüschweiler, B., Ceccatelli, S., ... EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) (2018). Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed and food. EFSA Journal, 16(11), [e05333]. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5333

Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed and food. / Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Brüschweiler, Beat; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Cottrill, Bruce; Dinovi, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Hogstrand, Christer; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano; Oswald, Isabelle P; Petersen, Annette; Rose, Martin; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Vleminckx, Christiane; Vollmer, Günter; Wallace, Heather; Fürst, Peter; Håkansson, Helen; Halldorsson, Thorhallur; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Rylander, Lars; Smith, Andrew; van Loveren, Henk; Waalkens-Berendsen, Ine; Zeilmaker, Marco; Binaglia, Marco; Gómez Ruiz, José Ángel; Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Christoph, Eugen; Ciccolallo, Laura; Ramos Bordajandi, Luisa; Steinkellner, Hans; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron); EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM).

In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 11, e05333, 11.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Knutsen, HK, Alexander, J, Barregård, L, Bignami, M, Brüschweiler, B, Ceccatelli, S, Cottrill, B, Dinovi, M, Edler, L, Grasl-Kraupp, B, Hogstrand, C, Nebbia, CS, Oswald, IP, Petersen, A, Rose, M, Roudot, A-C, Schwerdtle, T, Vleminckx, C, Vollmer, G, Wallace, H, Fürst, P, Håkansson, H, Halldorsson, T, Lundebye, A-K, Pohjanvirta, R, Rylander, L, Smith, A, van Loveren, H, Waalkens-Berendsen, I, Zeilmaker, M, Binaglia, M, Gómez Ruiz, JÁ, Horváth, Z, Christoph, E, Ciccolallo, L, Ramos Bordajandi, L, Steinkellner, H, Hoogenboom, LR & EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) 2018, 'Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed and food', EFSA Journal, vol. 16, no. 11, e05333. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5333
Knutsen HK, Alexander J, Barregård L, Bignami M, Brüschweiler B, Ceccatelli S et al. Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed and food. EFSA Journal. 2018 Nov;16(11). e05333. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5333
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Fürst, Peter ; Håkansson, Helen ; Halldorsson, Thorhallur ; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine ; Pohjanvirta, Raimo ; Rylander, Lars ; Smith, Andrew ; van Loveren, Henk ; Waalkens-Berendsen, Ine ; Zeilmaker, Marco ; Binaglia, Marco ; Gómez Ruiz, José Ángel ; Horváth, Zsuzsanna ; Christoph, Eugen ; Ciccolallo, Laura ; Ramos Bordajandi, Luisa ; Steinkellner, Hans ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). / Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed and food. In: EFSA Journal. 2018 ; Vol. 16, No. 11.
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abstract = "The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs in feed and food. The data from experimental animal and epidemiological studies were reviewed and it was decided to base the human risk assessment on effects observed in humans and to use animal data as supportive evidence. The critical effect was on semen quality, following pre- and postnatal exposure. The critical study showed a NOAEL of 7.0 pg WHO2005-TEQ/g fat in blood sampled at age 9 years based on PCDD/F-TEQs. No association was observed when including DL-PCB-TEQs. Using toxicokinetic modelling and taking into account the exposure from breastfeeding and a twofold higher intake during childhood, it was estimated that daily exposure in adolescents and adults should be below 0.25 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. The CONTAM Panel established a TWI of 2 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. With occurrence and consumption data from European countries, the mean and P95 intake of total TEQ by Adolescents, Adults, Elderly and Very Elderly varied between, respectively, 2.1 to 10.5, and 5.3 to 30.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/week, implying a considerable exceedance of the TWI. Toddlers and Other Children showed a higher exposure than older age groups, but this was accounted for when deriving the TWI. Exposure to PCDD/F-TEQ only was on average 2.4- and 2.7-fold lower for mean and P95 exposure than for total TEQ. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs are transferred to milk and eggs, and accumulate in fatty tissues and liver. Transfer rates and bioconcentration factors were identified for various species. The CONTAM Panel was not able to identify reference values in most farm and companion animals with the exception of NOAELs for mink, chicken and some fish species. The estimated exposure from feed for these species does not imply a risk.",
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T1 - Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed and food

AU - Knutsen, Helle Katrine

AU - Alexander, Jan

AU - Barregård, Lars

AU - Bignami, Margherita

AU - Brüschweiler, Beat

AU - Ceccatelli, Sandra

AU - Cottrill, Bruce

AU - Dinovi, Michael

AU - Edler, Lutz

AU - Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina

AU - Hogstrand, Christer

AU - Nebbia, Carlo Stefano

AU - Oswald, Isabelle P

AU - Petersen, Annette

AU - Rose, Martin

AU - Roudot, Alain-Claude

AU - Schwerdtle, Tanja

AU - Vleminckx, Christiane

AU - Vollmer, Günter

AU - Wallace, Heather

AU - Fürst, Peter

AU - Håkansson, Helen

AU - Halldorsson, Thorhallur

AU - Lundebye, Anne-Katrine

AU - Pohjanvirta, Raimo

AU - Rylander, Lars

AU - Smith, Andrew

AU - van Loveren, Henk

AU - Waalkens-Berendsen, Ine

AU - Zeilmaker, Marco

AU - Binaglia, Marco

AU - Gómez Ruiz, José Ángel

AU - Horváth, Zsuzsanna

AU - Christoph, Eugen

AU - Ciccolallo, Laura

AU - Ramos Bordajandi, Luisa

AU - Steinkellner, Hans

AU - Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron)

AU - EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

N1 - EFSA wishes to thank the Working Group members: Manolis Kogevinas (until 14 September 2016), George Loizou (until 23 January 2017), and the hearing experts: Matteo Bonzini, Jane Burns, Claude Emond, Aleksander Giwercman, Russ Hauser, Lidia Mínguez‐Alarcón and Paolo Mocarelli, for the support provided to this scientific output. The CONTAM Panel acknowledges all European competent institutions and other stakeholders that provided occurrence data on PCDD/Fs and DL‐PCBs in food and feed, and supported the data collection for the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database.

PY - 2018/11

Y1 - 2018/11

N2 - The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs in feed and food. The data from experimental animal and epidemiological studies were reviewed and it was decided to base the human risk assessment on effects observed in humans and to use animal data as supportive evidence. The critical effect was on semen quality, following pre- and postnatal exposure. The critical study showed a NOAEL of 7.0 pg WHO2005-TEQ/g fat in blood sampled at age 9 years based on PCDD/F-TEQs. No association was observed when including DL-PCB-TEQs. Using toxicokinetic modelling and taking into account the exposure from breastfeeding and a twofold higher intake during childhood, it was estimated that daily exposure in adolescents and adults should be below 0.25 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. The CONTAM Panel established a TWI of 2 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. With occurrence and consumption data from European countries, the mean and P95 intake of total TEQ by Adolescents, Adults, Elderly and Very Elderly varied between, respectively, 2.1 to 10.5, and 5.3 to 30.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/week, implying a considerable exceedance of the TWI. Toddlers and Other Children showed a higher exposure than older age groups, but this was accounted for when deriving the TWI. Exposure to PCDD/F-TEQ only was on average 2.4- and 2.7-fold lower for mean and P95 exposure than for total TEQ. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs are transferred to milk and eggs, and accumulate in fatty tissues and liver. Transfer rates and bioconcentration factors were identified for various species. The CONTAM Panel was not able to identify reference values in most farm and companion animals with the exception of NOAELs for mink, chicken and some fish species. The estimated exposure from feed for these species does not imply a risk.

AB - The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs in feed and food. The data from experimental animal and epidemiological studies were reviewed and it was decided to base the human risk assessment on effects observed in humans and to use animal data as supportive evidence. The critical effect was on semen quality, following pre- and postnatal exposure. The critical study showed a NOAEL of 7.0 pg WHO2005-TEQ/g fat in blood sampled at age 9 years based on PCDD/F-TEQs. No association was observed when including DL-PCB-TEQs. Using toxicokinetic modelling and taking into account the exposure from breastfeeding and a twofold higher intake during childhood, it was estimated that daily exposure in adolescents and adults should be below 0.25 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. The CONTAM Panel established a TWI of 2 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. With occurrence and consumption data from European countries, the mean and P95 intake of total TEQ by Adolescents, Adults, Elderly and Very Elderly varied between, respectively, 2.1 to 10.5, and 5.3 to 30.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/week, implying a considerable exceedance of the TWI. Toddlers and Other Children showed a higher exposure than older age groups, but this was accounted for when deriving the TWI. Exposure to PCDD/F-TEQ only was on average 2.4- and 2.7-fold lower for mean and P95 exposure than for total TEQ. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs are transferred to milk and eggs, and accumulate in fatty tissues and liver. Transfer rates and bioconcentration factors were identified for various species. The CONTAM Panel was not able to identify reference values in most farm and companion animals with the exception of NOAELs for mink, chicken and some fish species. The estimated exposure from feed for these species does not imply a risk.

KW - Dioxins

KW - PCDD/Fs

KW - DL-PCBs

KW - food

KW - feed

KW - risk assessment

KW - transfer

U2 - 10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5333

DO - 10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5333

M3 - Article

VL - 16

JO - EFSA Journal

JF - EFSA Journal

SN - 1831-4732

IS - 11

M1 - e05333

ER -