Risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed

Helle Katrine Knutsen, Jan Alexander, Lars Barregård, Margherita Bignami, Beat Brüschweiler, Sandra Ceccatelli, Bruce Cottrill, Michael Dinovi, Lutz Edler, Bettina Grasl-Kraupp, Christer Hogstrand, Laurentius (Ron) Hoogenboom, Carlo Stefano Nebbia, Annette Petersen, Martin Rose, Alain-Claude Roudot, Tanja Schwerdtle, Christiane Vleminckx, Günter Vollmer, Heather Wallace & 7 others Chiara Dall'Asta, Sven Dänicke, Gunnar Sundstøl Eriksen, Andrea Altieri, Ruth Roldán Torres, Isabelle P. Oswald, EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurs predominantly in cereal grains. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to ZEN and its modified forms in feed. Modified forms of ZEN occurring in feed include phase I metabolites α‐zearalenol (α‐ZEL), β‐zearalenol (β‐ZEL), α‐zearalanol (α‐ZAL), β‐zearalanol (β‐ZAL), zearalanone (ZAN) and phase II conjugates. ZEN has oestrogenic activity and the oestrogenic activity of the modified forms of ZEN differs considerably. For ZEN, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) established no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for pig (piglets and gilts), poultry (chicken and fattening turkeys), sheep and fish (extrapolated from carp) and lowest observed effect level (LOAEL) for dogs. No reference points could be established for cattle, ducks, goats, horses, rabbits, mink and cats. For modified forms, no reference points could be established for any animal species and relative potency factors previously established from rodents by the CONTAM Panel in 2016 were used. The dietary exposure was estimated on 17,706 analytical results with high proportions of left‐censored data (ZEN about 60%, ZAN about 70%, others close to 100%). Samples for ZEN were collected between 2001 and 2015 in 25 different European countries, whereas samples for the modified forms were collected mostly between 2013 and 2015 from three Member States. Based on exposure estimates, the risk of adverse health effects of feed containing ZEN was considered extremely low for poultry and low for sheep, dog, pig and fish. The same conclusions also apply to the sum of ZEN and its modified forms.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere04851
Number of pages123
JournalEFSA Journal
Volume15
Issue number7
Early online date31 Jul 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2017

Fingerprint

zearalenone
animal health
lowest observed effect level
zearalenol
poultry
sheep
no observed adverse effect level
swine
risk estimate
dietary exposure
dogs
mink
food contamination
fish
food chain
gilts
carp
ducks
mycotoxins
Fusarium

Keywords

  • zearalenone
  • modified forms
  • metabolites
  • feed
  • exposure
  • toxicity
  • animal health risk assessment

Cite this

Knutsen, H. K., Alexander, J., Barregård, L., Bignami, M., Brüschweiler, B., Ceccatelli, S., ... EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) (2017). Risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed. EFSA Journal, 15(7), [e04851]. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4851

Risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed. / Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Cottrill, Bruce; Dinovi, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Dänicke, Sven; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl; Altieri, Andrea; Torres, Ruth Roldán; Oswald, Isabelle P.; EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM).

In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 7, e04851, 07.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Knutsen, HK, Alexander, J, Barregård, L, Bignami, M, Brüschweiler, B, Ceccatelli, S, Cottrill, B, Dinovi, M, Edler, L, Grasl-Kraupp, B, Hogstrand, C, Hoogenboom, LR, Nebbia, CS, Petersen, A, Rose, M, Roudot, A-C, Schwerdtle, T, Vleminckx, C, Vollmer, G, Wallace, H, Dall'Asta, C, Dänicke, S, Eriksen, GS, Altieri, A, Torres, RR, Oswald, IP & EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) 2017, 'Risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed', EFSA Journal, vol. 15, no. 7, e04851. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4851
Knutsen HK, Alexander J, Barregård L, Bignami M, Brüschweiler B, Ceccatelli S et al. Risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed. EFSA Journal. 2017 Jul;15(7). e04851. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4851
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Dall'Asta, Chiara ; Dänicke, Sven ; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Altieri, Andrea ; Torres, Ruth Roldán ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). / Risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed. In: EFSA Journal. 2017 ; Vol. 15, No. 7.
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abstract = "Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurs predominantly in cereal grains. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to ZEN and its modified forms in feed. Modified forms of ZEN occurring in feed include phase I metabolites α‐zearalenol (α‐ZEL), β‐zearalenol (β‐ZEL), α‐zearalanol (α‐ZAL), β‐zearalanol (β‐ZAL), zearalanone (ZAN) and phase II conjugates. ZEN has oestrogenic activity and the oestrogenic activity of the modified forms of ZEN differs considerably. For ZEN, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) established no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for pig (piglets and gilts), poultry (chicken and fattening turkeys), sheep and fish (extrapolated from carp) and lowest observed effect level (LOAEL) for dogs. No reference points could be established for cattle, ducks, goats, horses, rabbits, mink and cats. For modified forms, no reference points could be established for any animal species and relative potency factors previously established from rodents by the CONTAM Panel in 2016 were used. The dietary exposure was estimated on 17,706 analytical results with high proportions of left‐censored data (ZEN about 60{\%}, ZAN about 70{\%}, others close to 100{\%}). Samples for ZEN were collected between 2001 and 2015 in 25 different European countries, whereas samples for the modified forms were collected mostly between 2013 and 2015 from three Member States. Based on exposure estimates, the risk of adverse health effects of feed containing ZEN was considered extremely low for poultry and low for sheep, dog, pig and fish. The same conclusions also apply to the sum of ZEN and its modified forms.",
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author = "Knutsen, {Helle Katrine} and Jan Alexander and Lars Barreg{\aa}rd and Margherita Bignami and Beat Br{\"u}schweiler and Sandra Ceccatelli and Bruce Cottrill and Michael Dinovi and Lutz Edler and Bettina Grasl-Kraupp and Christer Hogstrand and Hoogenboom, {Laurentius (Ron)} and Nebbia, {Carlo Stefano} and Annette Petersen and Martin Rose and Alain-Claude Roudot and Tanja Schwerdtle and Christiane Vleminckx and G{\"u}nter Vollmer and Heather Wallace and Chiara Dall'Asta and Sven D{\"a}nicke and Eriksen, {Gunnar Sundst{\o}l} and Andrea Altieri and Torres, {Ruth Rold{\'a}n} and Oswald, {Isabelle P.} and {EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)}",
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AU - Knutsen, Helle Katrine

AU - Alexander, Jan

AU - Barregård, Lars

AU - Bignami, Margherita

AU - Brüschweiler, Beat

AU - Ceccatelli, Sandra

AU - Cottrill, Bruce

AU - Dinovi, Michael

AU - Edler, Lutz

AU - Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina

AU - Hogstrand, Christer

AU - Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron)

AU - Nebbia, Carlo Stefano

AU - Petersen, Annette

AU - Rose, Martin

AU - Roudot, Alain-Claude

AU - Schwerdtle, Tanja

AU - Vleminckx, Christiane

AU - Vollmer, Günter

AU - Wallace, Heather

AU - Dall'Asta, Chiara

AU - Dänicke, Sven

AU - Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

AU - Altieri, Andrea

AU - Torres, Ruth Roldán

AU - Oswald, Isabelle P.

AU - EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

N1 - An editorial amendment was carried out that does not materially affect the contents or outcome of this scientific output. On p. 84 the reference Jiang et al. (2012) has been corrected so as to match the main text and conclusions on adverse effects on pigs. To avoid confusion, the older version has been removed from the EFSA Journal, but is available on request, as is a version showing all the changes made. Acknowledgements: The EFSA CONTAM Panel thanks the hearing expert Andrew David Hart, member of the EFSA WG on Uncertainty in Risk Assessment for the support provided to this scientific output. The Panel acknowledges all European countries and European stakeholder organisations that provided feed consumption data and occurrence data on zearalenone and its modified forms in feed. Adopted: 10 May 2017 Reproduction of the image listed below is prohibited and permission must be sought directly from the copyright holder:Figure 4: © Elsevier Ltd. Amended: 18 July 2018

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N2 - Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurs predominantly in cereal grains. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to ZEN and its modified forms in feed. Modified forms of ZEN occurring in feed include phase I metabolites α‐zearalenol (α‐ZEL), β‐zearalenol (β‐ZEL), α‐zearalanol (α‐ZAL), β‐zearalanol (β‐ZAL), zearalanone (ZAN) and phase II conjugates. ZEN has oestrogenic activity and the oestrogenic activity of the modified forms of ZEN differs considerably. For ZEN, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) established no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for pig (piglets and gilts), poultry (chicken and fattening turkeys), sheep and fish (extrapolated from carp) and lowest observed effect level (LOAEL) for dogs. No reference points could be established for cattle, ducks, goats, horses, rabbits, mink and cats. For modified forms, no reference points could be established for any animal species and relative potency factors previously established from rodents by the CONTAM Panel in 2016 were used. The dietary exposure was estimated on 17,706 analytical results with high proportions of left‐censored data (ZEN about 60%, ZAN about 70%, others close to 100%). Samples for ZEN were collected between 2001 and 2015 in 25 different European countries, whereas samples for the modified forms were collected mostly between 2013 and 2015 from three Member States. Based on exposure estimates, the risk of adverse health effects of feed containing ZEN was considered extremely low for poultry and low for sheep, dog, pig and fish. The same conclusions also apply to the sum of ZEN and its modified forms.

AB - Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurs predominantly in cereal grains. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to ZEN and its modified forms in feed. Modified forms of ZEN occurring in feed include phase I metabolites α‐zearalenol (α‐ZEL), β‐zearalenol (β‐ZEL), α‐zearalanol (α‐ZAL), β‐zearalanol (β‐ZAL), zearalanone (ZAN) and phase II conjugates. ZEN has oestrogenic activity and the oestrogenic activity of the modified forms of ZEN differs considerably. For ZEN, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) established no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for pig (piglets and gilts), poultry (chicken and fattening turkeys), sheep and fish (extrapolated from carp) and lowest observed effect level (LOAEL) for dogs. No reference points could be established for cattle, ducks, goats, horses, rabbits, mink and cats. For modified forms, no reference points could be established for any animal species and relative potency factors previously established from rodents by the CONTAM Panel in 2016 were used. The dietary exposure was estimated on 17,706 analytical results with high proportions of left‐censored data (ZEN about 60%, ZAN about 70%, others close to 100%). Samples for ZEN were collected between 2001 and 2015 in 25 different European countries, whereas samples for the modified forms were collected mostly between 2013 and 2015 from three Member States. Based on exposure estimates, the risk of adverse health effects of feed containing ZEN was considered extremely low for poultry and low for sheep, dog, pig and fish. The same conclusions also apply to the sum of ZEN and its modified forms.

KW - zearalenone

KW - modified forms

KW - metabolites

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KW - toxicity

KW - animal health risk assessment

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