Risks for human and animal health related to the presence of phorbol esters in Jatropha kernel meal

Heather Wallace, Alexander Jan, Lars Barregård, Margherita Bignami, Sandra Ceccatelli, Bruce Cottrill, Lutz Edler, Bettina Grasl-Kraupp, Christer Hogstrand, Laurentius (Ron) Hoogenboom, Helle Katrine Knutsen, Carlo Stefano Nebbia, Isabelle Oswald, Annette Petersen, Vera Maria Rogiers, Alain-Claude Roudot, Tanja Schwerdtle, Christiane Vleminckx, Günter Vollmer, Michael Dinovi & 2 others Martin Rose, Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the risks for human and animal health related to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs) in Jatropha kernel meal were assessed by the EFSA Panel of Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). Jatropha curcas (Jatropha) seeds contain substantial amounts of extractable oil utilised for biodiesel production. The remaining protein-rich products (seed meal or kernel meal) may be used as a protein source in animal feed after removal of anti-nutritive factors and toxic PEs. The available data on absorption of Jatropha PEs after oral ingestion, biotransformation, elimination, and dose-dependent toxic effects are very limited, and only for pigs a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 0.4 mg PEs/kg bw per day (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) equivalent), based on decreases in body weight gain and feed intake, could be identified from short-term feeding studies. No health based guidance value for humans could be established. Processes that almost completely remove or degrade toxic PEs in Jatropha products are available, resulting in levels below the limit of detection of 3 mg Jatropha PEs/kg (TPA equivalent). Replacement of 50% of the protein in compound feeds with treated Jatropha materials would result in animal exposures that are still 10 to 200-fold lower than the NOAEL for pigs. The CONTAM Panel concluded that such use of Jatropha material would not pose a health risk to pigs and that the risk to other species is likely to be low. The transfer of Jatropha PEs to animal derived products is unknown. In a human exposure scenario using a 50% transfer rate from feed to milk, a daily intake of 1 µg Jatropa PEs/kg bw per day was calculated. The CONTAM Panel concluded that more data are needed to draw firm conclusions on human risks.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4321
Pages (from-to)1-80
Number of pages80
JournalEFSA Journal
Volume13
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015

Fingerprint

Jatropha
animal and human health
esters
seeds
no observed adverse effect level
swine
seed products
exposure scenario
acetates
antinutritional factors
Jatropha curcas
food contamination
biodiesel
biotransformation
food chain
protein sources
mouth
animals
detection limit
proteins

Keywords

  • Jatropha curcas
  • Jatropha kernel meal
  • seed cake
  • seed meal
  • protein isolate
  • protein replacement
  • phorbol esters
  • Jatropha factors

Cite this

Wallace, H., Jan, A., Barregård, L., Bignami, M., Ceccatelli, S., Cottrill, B., ... Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (2015). Risks for human and animal health related to the presence of phorbol esters in Jatropha kernel meal. EFSA Journal, 13(12), 1-80. [4321 ]. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4321

Risks for human and animal health related to the presence of phorbol esters in Jatropha kernel meal. / Wallace, Heather; Jan, Alexander; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Cottrill, Bruce; Edler, Lutz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle ; Petersen, Annette ; Rogiers, Vera Maria; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Dinovi, Michael; Rose, Martin ; Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain .

In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 12, 4321 , 12.2015, p. 1-80.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wallace, H, Jan, A, Barregård, L, Bignami, M, Ceccatelli, S, Cottrill, B, Edler, L, Grasl-Kraupp, B, Hogstrand, C, Hoogenboom, LR, Knutsen, HK, Nebbia, CS, Oswald, I, Petersen, A, Rogiers, VM, Roudot, A-C, Schwerdtle, T, Vleminckx, C, Vollmer, G, Dinovi, M, Rose, M & Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain 2015, 'Risks for human and animal health related to the presence of phorbol esters in Jatropha kernel meal', EFSA Journal, vol. 13, no. 12, 4321 , pp. 1-80. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4321
Wallace, Heather ; Jan, Alexander ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle ; Petersen, Annette ; Rogiers, Vera Maria ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Dinovi, Michael ; Rose, Martin ; Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain . / Risks for human and animal health related to the presence of phorbol esters in Jatropha kernel meal. In: EFSA Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 13, No. 12. pp. 1-80.
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abstract = "Following a request from the European Commission, the risks for human and animal health related to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs) in Jatropha kernel meal were assessed by the EFSA Panel of Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). Jatropha curcas (Jatropha) seeds contain substantial amounts of extractable oil utilised for biodiesel production. The remaining protein-rich products (seed meal or kernel meal) may be used as a protein source in animal feed after removal of anti-nutritive factors and toxic PEs. The available data on absorption of Jatropha PEs after oral ingestion, biotransformation, elimination, and dose-dependent toxic effects are very limited, and only for pigs a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 0.4 mg PEs/kg bw per day (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) equivalent), based on decreases in body weight gain and feed intake, could be identified from short-term feeding studies. No health based guidance value for humans could be established. Processes that almost completely remove or degrade toxic PEs in Jatropha products are available, resulting in levels below the limit of detection of 3 mg Jatropha PEs/kg (TPA equivalent). Replacement of 50{\%} of the protein in compound feeds with treated Jatropha materials would result in animal exposures that are still 10 to 200-fold lower than the NOAEL for pigs. The CONTAM Panel concluded that such use of Jatropha material would not pose a health risk to pigs and that the risk to other species is likely to be low. The transfer of Jatropha PEs to animal derived products is unknown. In a human exposure scenario using a 50{\%} transfer rate from feed to milk, a daily intake of 1 µg Jatropa PEs/kg bw per day was calculated. The CONTAM Panel concluded that more data are needed to draw firm conclusions on human risks.",
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AU - Wallace, Heather

AU - Jan, Alexander

AU - Barregård, Lars

AU - Bignami, Margherita

AU - Ceccatelli, Sandra

AU - Cottrill, Bruce

AU - Edler, Lutz

AU - Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina

AU - Hogstrand, Christer

AU - Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron)

AU - Knutsen, Helle Katrine

AU - Nebbia, Carlo Stefano

AU - Oswald, Isabelle

AU - Petersen, Annette

AU - Rogiers, Vera Maria

AU - Roudot, Alain-Claude

AU - Schwerdtle, Tanja

AU - Vleminckx, Christiane

AU - Vollmer, Günter

AU - Dinovi, Michael

AU - Rose, Martin

AU - Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain

N1 - The Panel wishes to thank the members of the Working Group on Phorbol Esters: Bruce Cottrill, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Harinder P.S. Makkar and Manfred Metzler for the preparatory work on this scientific opinion, and EFSA staff: Marco Binaglia, Karen Mackay and Rositsa Serafimova for the support provided to this scientific opinion.

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N2 - Following a request from the European Commission, the risks for human and animal health related to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs) in Jatropha kernel meal were assessed by the EFSA Panel of Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). Jatropha curcas (Jatropha) seeds contain substantial amounts of extractable oil utilised for biodiesel production. The remaining protein-rich products (seed meal or kernel meal) may be used as a protein source in animal feed after removal of anti-nutritive factors and toxic PEs. The available data on absorption of Jatropha PEs after oral ingestion, biotransformation, elimination, and dose-dependent toxic effects are very limited, and only for pigs a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 0.4 mg PEs/kg bw per day (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) equivalent), based on decreases in body weight gain and feed intake, could be identified from short-term feeding studies. No health based guidance value for humans could be established. Processes that almost completely remove or degrade toxic PEs in Jatropha products are available, resulting in levels below the limit of detection of 3 mg Jatropha PEs/kg (TPA equivalent). Replacement of 50% of the protein in compound feeds with treated Jatropha materials would result in animal exposures that are still 10 to 200-fold lower than the NOAEL for pigs. The CONTAM Panel concluded that such use of Jatropha material would not pose a health risk to pigs and that the risk to other species is likely to be low. The transfer of Jatropha PEs to animal derived products is unknown. In a human exposure scenario using a 50% transfer rate from feed to milk, a daily intake of 1 µg Jatropa PEs/kg bw per day was calculated. The CONTAM Panel concluded that more data are needed to draw firm conclusions on human risks.

AB - Following a request from the European Commission, the risks for human and animal health related to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs) in Jatropha kernel meal were assessed by the EFSA Panel of Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). Jatropha curcas (Jatropha) seeds contain substantial amounts of extractable oil utilised for biodiesel production. The remaining protein-rich products (seed meal or kernel meal) may be used as a protein source in animal feed after removal of anti-nutritive factors and toxic PEs. The available data on absorption of Jatropha PEs after oral ingestion, biotransformation, elimination, and dose-dependent toxic effects are very limited, and only for pigs a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 0.4 mg PEs/kg bw per day (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) equivalent), based on decreases in body weight gain and feed intake, could be identified from short-term feeding studies. No health based guidance value for humans could be established. Processes that almost completely remove or degrade toxic PEs in Jatropha products are available, resulting in levels below the limit of detection of 3 mg Jatropha PEs/kg (TPA equivalent). Replacement of 50% of the protein in compound feeds with treated Jatropha materials would result in animal exposures that are still 10 to 200-fold lower than the NOAEL for pigs. The CONTAM Panel concluded that such use of Jatropha material would not pose a health risk to pigs and that the risk to other species is likely to be low. The transfer of Jatropha PEs to animal derived products is unknown. In a human exposure scenario using a 50% transfer rate from feed to milk, a daily intake of 1 µg Jatropa PEs/kg bw per day was calculated. The CONTAM Panel concluded that more data are needed to draw firm conclusions on human risks.

KW - Jatropha curcas

KW - Jatropha kernel meal

KW - seed cake

KW - seed meal

KW - protein isolate

KW - protein replacement

KW - phorbol esters

KW - Jatropha factors

U2 - 10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4321

DO - 10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4321

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 1

EP - 80

JO - EFSA Journal

JF - EFSA Journal

SN - 1831-4732

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