Risks for public health related to the presence of furan and methylfurans in food

Helle Katrine Knutsen, Jan Alexander, Lars Barregård, Margherita Bignami, Beat Brüschweiler, Sandra Ceccatelli, Bruce Cottrill, Michael Dinovi, Lutz Edler, Bettina Grasl-Kraupp, Christer Hogstrand, Laurentius (Ron) Hoogenboom, Carlo Stefano Nebbia, Isabelle P. Oswald, Annette Petersen, Martin Rose, Alain-Claude Roudot, Tanja Schwerdtle, Christiane Vleminckx, Günter Vollmer & 10 others Kevin Chipman, Bruno De Meulenaer, Michael Dinovi, Wim Mennes, Josef Schlatter, Dieter Schrenk, Katleen Baert, Bruno Dujardin, Heather Wallace, EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific evaluation on the risk to human health of the presence of furan and methylfurans (2‐methylfuran, 3‐methylfuran and 2,5‐dimethylfuran) in food. They are formed in foods during thermal processing and can co‐occur. Furans are produced from several precursors such as ascorbic acid, amino acids, carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids, and are found in a variety of foods including coffee and canned and jarred foods. Regarding furan occurrence, 17,056 analytical results were used in the evaluation. No occurrence data were received on methylfurans. The highest exposures to furan were estimated for infants, mainly from ready‐to‐eat meals. Grains and grain‐based products contribute most for toddlers, other children and adolescents. In adults, elderly and very elderly, coffee is the main contributor to dietary exposure. Furan is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is found in highest amounts in the liver. It has a short half‐life and is metabolised by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to the reactive metabolite, cis‐but‐2‐ene‐1,4‐dialdehyde (BDA). BDA can bind covalently to amino acids, proteins and DNA. Furan is hepatotoxic in rats and mice with cholangiofibrosis in rats and hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas in mice being the most prominent effects. There is limited evidence of chromosomal damage in vivo and a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanism. Clear evidence for indirect mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis include oxidative stress, gene expression alterations, epigenetic changes, inflammation and increased cell proliferation. The CONTAM Panel used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach for the risk characterisation using as a reference point a benchmark dose lower confidence limit for a benchmark response of 10% of 0.064 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for the incidence of cholangiofibrosis in the rat. The calculated MOEs indicate a health concern. This conclusion was supported by the calculated MOEs for the neoplastic effects.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere05005
Number of pages142
JournalEFSA Journal
Volume15
Issue number10
Early online date25 Oct 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017

Fingerprint

Public Health
Food
Benchmarking
Coffee
Preserved Food
Liver Cell Adenoma
Furans
Amino Acids
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
Health
Carotenoids
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Epigenomics
Ascorbic Acid
Half-Life
Meals
Gastrointestinal Tract
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Carcinogenesis
Oxidative Stress

Keywords

  • furan
  • 2-methylfuran
  • 3-methylfuran
  • 2,5‐dimethylfuran
  • food
  • risk assessment
  • BMD

Cite this

Knutsen, H. K., Alexander, J., Barregård, L., Bignami, M., Brüschweiler, B., Ceccatelli, S., ... EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) (2017). Risks for public health related to the presence of furan and methylfurans in food. EFSA Journal, 15(10), [e05005]. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5005

Risks for public health related to the presence of furan and methylfurans in food. / Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Cottrill, Bruce; Dinovi, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Chipman, Kevin; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Dinovi, Michael; Mennes, Wim ; Schlatter, Josef; Schrenk, Dieter; Baert, Katleen; Dujardin, Bruno; Wallace, Heather; EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM).

In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 10, e05005, 10.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Knutsen, HK, Alexander, J, Barregård, L, Bignami, M, Brüschweiler, B, Ceccatelli, S, Cottrill, B, Dinovi, M, Edler, L, Grasl-Kraupp, B, Hogstrand, C, Hoogenboom, LR, Nebbia, CS, Oswald, IP, Petersen, A, Rose, M, Roudot, A-C, Schwerdtle, T, Vleminckx, C, Vollmer, G, Chipman, K, De Meulenaer, B, Dinovi, M, Mennes, W, Schlatter, J, Schrenk, D, Baert, K, Dujardin, B, Wallace, H & EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) 2017, 'Risks for public health related to the presence of furan and methylfurans in food', EFSA Journal, vol. 15, no. 10, e05005. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5005
Knutsen HK, Alexander J, Barregård L, Bignami M, Brüschweiler B, Ceccatelli S et al. Risks for public health related to the presence of furan and methylfurans in food. EFSA Journal. 2017 Oct;15(10). e05005. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5005
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Chipman, Kevin ; De Meulenaer, Bruno ; Dinovi, Michael ; Mennes, Wim ; Schlatter, Josef ; Schrenk, Dieter ; Baert, Katleen ; Dujardin, Bruno ; Wallace, Heather ; EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). / Risks for public health related to the presence of furan and methylfurans in food. In: EFSA Journal. 2017 ; Vol. 15, No. 10.
@article{d45dc978564948dcb798ad1aa6286a74,
title = "Risks for public health related to the presence of furan and methylfurans in food",
abstract = "The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific evaluation on the risk to human health of the presence of furan and methylfurans (2‐methylfuran, 3‐methylfuran and 2,5‐dimethylfuran) in food. They are formed in foods during thermal processing and can co‐occur. Furans are produced from several precursors such as ascorbic acid, amino acids, carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids, and are found in a variety of foods including coffee and canned and jarred foods. Regarding furan occurrence, 17,056 analytical results were used in the evaluation. No occurrence data were received on methylfurans. The highest exposures to furan were estimated for infants, mainly from ready‐to‐eat meals. Grains and grain‐based products contribute most for toddlers, other children and adolescents. In adults, elderly and very elderly, coffee is the main contributor to dietary exposure. Furan is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is found in highest amounts in the liver. It has a short half‐life and is metabolised by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to the reactive metabolite, cis‐but‐2‐ene‐1,4‐dialdehyde (BDA). BDA can bind covalently to amino acids, proteins and DNA. Furan is hepatotoxic in rats and mice with cholangiofibrosis in rats and hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas in mice being the most prominent effects. There is limited evidence of chromosomal damage in vivo and a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanism. Clear evidence for indirect mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis include oxidative stress, gene expression alterations, epigenetic changes, inflammation and increased cell proliferation. The CONTAM Panel used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach for the risk characterisation using as a reference point a benchmark dose lower confidence limit for a benchmark response of 10{\%} of 0.064 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for the incidence of cholangiofibrosis in the rat. The calculated MOEs indicate a health concern. This conclusion was supported by the calculated MOEs for the neoplastic effects.",
keywords = "furan, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2,5‐dimethylfuran, food, risk assessment, BMD",
author = "Knutsen, {Helle Katrine} and Jan Alexander and Lars Barreg{\aa}rd and Margherita Bignami and Beat Br{\"u}schweiler and Sandra Ceccatelli and Bruce Cottrill and Michael Dinovi and Lutz Edler and Bettina Grasl-Kraupp and Christer Hogstrand and Hoogenboom, {Laurentius (Ron)} and Nebbia, {Carlo Stefano} and Oswald, {Isabelle P.} and Annette Petersen and Martin Rose and Alain-Claude Roudot and Tanja Schwerdtle and Christiane Vleminckx and G{\"u}nter Vollmer and Kevin Chipman and {De Meulenaer}, Bruno and Michael Dinovi and Wim Mennes and Josef Schlatter and Dieter Schrenk and Katleen Baert and Bruno Dujardin and Heather Wallace and {EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)}",
note = "EFSA wishes to thank the hearing experts: Diana Doell and Ruud Woutersen and EFSA staff member: Jos{\'e} Cortinas Abrahantes for the support provided to this scientific output. The CONTAM Panel acknowledges all European competent institutions and other stakeholders that provided occurrence data on furan and methylfurans in food, and supported the data collection for the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. Adopted: 20 September 2017",
year = "2017",
month = "10",
doi = "10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5005",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
journal = "EFSA Journal",
issn = "1831-4732",
publisher = "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Risks for public health related to the presence of furan and methylfurans in food

AU - Knutsen, Helle Katrine

AU - Alexander, Jan

AU - Barregård, Lars

AU - Bignami, Margherita

AU - Brüschweiler, Beat

AU - Ceccatelli, Sandra

AU - Cottrill, Bruce

AU - Dinovi, Michael

AU - Edler, Lutz

AU - Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina

AU - Hogstrand, Christer

AU - Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron)

AU - Nebbia, Carlo Stefano

AU - Oswald, Isabelle P.

AU - Petersen, Annette

AU - Rose, Martin

AU - Roudot, Alain-Claude

AU - Schwerdtle, Tanja

AU - Vleminckx, Christiane

AU - Vollmer, Günter

AU - Chipman, Kevin

AU - De Meulenaer, Bruno

AU - Dinovi, Michael

AU - Mennes, Wim

AU - Schlatter, Josef

AU - Schrenk, Dieter

AU - Baert, Katleen

AU - Dujardin, Bruno

AU - Wallace, Heather

AU - EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

N1 - EFSA wishes to thank the hearing experts: Diana Doell and Ruud Woutersen and EFSA staff member: José Cortinas Abrahantes for the support provided to this scientific output. The CONTAM Panel acknowledges all European competent institutions and other stakeholders that provided occurrence data on furan and methylfurans in food, and supported the data collection for the Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. Adopted: 20 September 2017

PY - 2017/10

Y1 - 2017/10

N2 - The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific evaluation on the risk to human health of the presence of furan and methylfurans (2‐methylfuran, 3‐methylfuran and 2,5‐dimethylfuran) in food. They are formed in foods during thermal processing and can co‐occur. Furans are produced from several precursors such as ascorbic acid, amino acids, carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids, and are found in a variety of foods including coffee and canned and jarred foods. Regarding furan occurrence, 17,056 analytical results were used in the evaluation. No occurrence data were received on methylfurans. The highest exposures to furan were estimated for infants, mainly from ready‐to‐eat meals. Grains and grain‐based products contribute most for toddlers, other children and adolescents. In adults, elderly and very elderly, coffee is the main contributor to dietary exposure. Furan is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is found in highest amounts in the liver. It has a short half‐life and is metabolised by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to the reactive metabolite, cis‐but‐2‐ene‐1,4‐dialdehyde (BDA). BDA can bind covalently to amino acids, proteins and DNA. Furan is hepatotoxic in rats and mice with cholangiofibrosis in rats and hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas in mice being the most prominent effects. There is limited evidence of chromosomal damage in vivo and a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanism. Clear evidence for indirect mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis include oxidative stress, gene expression alterations, epigenetic changes, inflammation and increased cell proliferation. The CONTAM Panel used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach for the risk characterisation using as a reference point a benchmark dose lower confidence limit for a benchmark response of 10% of 0.064 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for the incidence of cholangiofibrosis in the rat. The calculated MOEs indicate a health concern. This conclusion was supported by the calculated MOEs for the neoplastic effects.

AB - The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific evaluation on the risk to human health of the presence of furan and methylfurans (2‐methylfuran, 3‐methylfuran and 2,5‐dimethylfuran) in food. They are formed in foods during thermal processing and can co‐occur. Furans are produced from several precursors such as ascorbic acid, amino acids, carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids, and are found in a variety of foods including coffee and canned and jarred foods. Regarding furan occurrence, 17,056 analytical results were used in the evaluation. No occurrence data were received on methylfurans. The highest exposures to furan were estimated for infants, mainly from ready‐to‐eat meals. Grains and grain‐based products contribute most for toddlers, other children and adolescents. In adults, elderly and very elderly, coffee is the main contributor to dietary exposure. Furan is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is found in highest amounts in the liver. It has a short half‐life and is metabolised by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to the reactive metabolite, cis‐but‐2‐ene‐1,4‐dialdehyde (BDA). BDA can bind covalently to amino acids, proteins and DNA. Furan is hepatotoxic in rats and mice with cholangiofibrosis in rats and hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas in mice being the most prominent effects. There is limited evidence of chromosomal damage in vivo and a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanism. Clear evidence for indirect mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis include oxidative stress, gene expression alterations, epigenetic changes, inflammation and increased cell proliferation. The CONTAM Panel used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach for the risk characterisation using as a reference point a benchmark dose lower confidence limit for a benchmark response of 10% of 0.064 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day for the incidence of cholangiofibrosis in the rat. The calculated MOEs indicate a health concern. This conclusion was supported by the calculated MOEs for the neoplastic effects.

KW - furan

KW - 2-methylfuran

KW - 3-methylfuran

KW - 2,5‐dimethylfuran

KW - food

KW - risk assessment

KW - BMD

U2 - 10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5005

DO - 10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5005

M3 - Article

VL - 15

JO - EFSA Journal

JF - EFSA Journal

SN - 1831-4732

IS - 10

M1 - e05005

ER -