Role of microparticles in sepsis

V. L. Reid, Nigel Robert Webster*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

72 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Summary This review discusses the role of microparticles in inflammation, coagulation, vascular function, and most importantly, their physiological and pathological functions in sepsis. Microparticles are proinflammatory, procoagulant membrane vesicles released from various cell types. They are detectable in normal individuals and basal levels correlate with a balance between cell proliferation, stimulation, and destruction. Haemostatic imbalance leads to various pathological states of inflammation and thrombosis including cardiovascular disease and sepsis, where circulating microparticles display both an increase in number and phenotypic change. Microparticles, mainly of platelet origin enable both local and disseminated amplification of the haemostatic response to endothelial injury through exposure of phosphatidylserine, tissue factor, and coagulation factor binding sites. Surface expression of membrane antigens by microparticles facilitates cytoadhesion, chemotaxis, and cytokine secretion to drive a proinflammatory response. Microparticles behave as vectors in the transcellular exchange of biological information and are important regulators of endothelial function and angiogenesis. The extent to which circulating microparticles contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation is currently unknown. Microparticles may in fact be beneficial in early sepsis, given that activated protein C bound to endothelium-derived microparticles retains anticoagulant activity, and increased circulating microparticles are protective against vascular hyporeactivity. Elevated levels of microparticles in early sepsis may therefore compensate for the host's systemic inflammatory response. Importantly, in vivo, septic microparticles induce deleterious changes in the expression of enzyme systems related to inflammation and oxidative stress, thus they may represent important contributors to multi-organ failure in septic shock.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)503-513
Number of pages11
JournalBritish Journal of Anaesthesia
Volume109
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012

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Sepsis
Hemostatics
Inflammation
Blood Vessels
Blood Coagulation Factors
Membranes
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Phosphatidylserines
Thromboplastin
Chemotaxis
Septic Shock
Protein C
Anticoagulants
Endothelium
Oxidative Stress
Thrombosis
Cardiovascular Diseases
Blood Platelets
Binding Sites
Cell Proliferation

Keywords

  • Coagulation
  • Endothelial dysfunction
  • Inflammation
  • Microparticles
  • Sepsis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

Role of microparticles in sepsis. / Reid, V. L.; Webster, Nigel Robert.

In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 109, No. 4, 10.2012, p. 503-513.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reid, VL & Webster, NR 2012, 'Role of microparticles in sepsis', British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 503-513. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aes321
Reid, V. L. ; Webster, Nigel Robert. / Role of microparticles in sepsis. In: British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2012 ; Vol. 109, No. 4. pp. 503-513.
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