Sandstone-filled normal faults

A case study from central California

Giuseppe Palladino, G Ian Alsop, Antonio Grippa, Gustavo Zvirtes, Ruy Paulo Philipp, Andrew Hurst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Despite the potential of sandstone-filled normal faults to significantly influence fluid transmissivity within reservoirs and the shallow crust, they have to date been largely overlooked. Fluidized sand, forcefully intruded along normal fault zones, markedly enhances the transmissivity of faults and, in general, the connectivity between otherwise unconnected reservoirs. Here, we provide a detailed outcrop description and interpretation of sandstone-filled normal faults from different stratigraphic units in central California. Such faults commonly show limited fault throw, cm to dm wide apertures, poorly-developed fault zones and full or partial sand infill. Based on these features and inferences regarding their origin, we propose a general classification that defines two main types of sandstone-filled normal faults. Type 1 form as a consequence of the hydraulic failure of the host strata above a poorly-consolidated sandstone following a significant, rapid increase of pore fluid over-pressure. Type 2 sandstone-filled normal faults form as a result of regional tectonic deformation. These structures may play a significant role in the connectivity of siliciclastic reservoirs, and may therefore be crucial not just for investigation of basin evolution but also in hydrocarbon exploration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)86-101
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Structural Geology
Volume110
Early online date27 Feb 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018

Fingerprint

normal fault
sandstone
transmissivity
connectivity
fault zone
sand
hydrocarbon exploration
fluid
overpressure
infill
basin evolution
outcrop
crust
hydraulics
tectonics

Keywords

  • sandstone-filled normal fault
  • sandstone intrusions
  • extensional tectonics
  • Great valley sequence
  • San Joaquin valley
  • Central California

Cite this

Sandstone-filled normal faults : A case study from central California. / Palladino, Giuseppe; Alsop, G Ian; Grippa, Antonio; Zvirtes, Gustavo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Hurst, Andrew.

In: Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 110, 01.05.2018, p. 86-101.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Palladino, Giuseppe ; Alsop, G Ian ; Grippa, Antonio ; Zvirtes, Gustavo ; Philipp, Ruy Paulo ; Hurst, Andrew. / Sandstone-filled normal faults : A case study from central California. In: Journal of Structural Geology. 2018 ; Vol. 110. pp. 86-101.
@article{6deb9f9756a84f76befec682778ec64a,
title = "Sandstone-filled normal faults: A case study from central California",
abstract = "Despite the potential of sandstone-filled normal faults to significantly influence fluid transmissivity within reservoirs and the shallow crust, they have to date been largely overlooked. Fluidized sand, forcefully intruded along normal fault zones, markedly enhances the transmissivity of faults and, in general, the connectivity between otherwise unconnected reservoirs. Here, we provide a detailed outcrop description and interpretation of sandstone-filled normal faults from different stratigraphic units in central California. Such faults commonly show limited fault throw, cm to dm wide apertures, poorly-developed fault zones and full or partial sand infill. Based on these features and inferences regarding their origin, we propose a general classification that defines two main types of sandstone-filled normal faults. Type 1 form as a consequence of the hydraulic failure of the host strata above a poorly-consolidated sandstone following a significant, rapid increase of pore fluid over-pressure. Type 2 sandstone-filled normal faults form as a result of regional tectonic deformation. These structures may play a significant role in the connectivity of siliciclastic reservoirs, and may therefore be crucial not just for investigation of basin evolution but also in hydrocarbon exploration.",
keywords = "sandstone-filled normal fault, sandstone intrusions, extensional tectonics, Great valley sequence, San Joaquin valley, Central California",
author = "Giuseppe Palladino and Alsop, {G Ian} and Antonio Grippa and Gustavo Zvirtes and Philipp, {Ruy Paulo} and Andrew Hurst",
note = "We acknowledge the support of sponsoring companies of Phase 3 of the Sand Injection Research Group (SIRG). We would like to thank Chris Morley and another anonymous reviewer for constructive comments, and the editor for efficient handling of this paper. We also wish to thank and acknowledge the continuing help and access provided by the Bureau of Land Management and in particular Greg Middleton without whose enthusiasm and support our research would have been much more challenging.",
year = "2018",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jsg.2018.02.013",
language = "English",
volume = "110",
pages = "86--101",
journal = "Journal of Structural Geology",
issn = "0191-8141",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sandstone-filled normal faults

T2 - A case study from central California

AU - Palladino, Giuseppe

AU - Alsop, G Ian

AU - Grippa, Antonio

AU - Zvirtes, Gustavo

AU - Philipp, Ruy Paulo

AU - Hurst, Andrew

N1 - We acknowledge the support of sponsoring companies of Phase 3 of the Sand Injection Research Group (SIRG). We would like to thank Chris Morley and another anonymous reviewer for constructive comments, and the editor for efficient handling of this paper. We also wish to thank and acknowledge the continuing help and access provided by the Bureau of Land Management and in particular Greg Middleton without whose enthusiasm and support our research would have been much more challenging.

PY - 2018/5/1

Y1 - 2018/5/1

N2 - Despite the potential of sandstone-filled normal faults to significantly influence fluid transmissivity within reservoirs and the shallow crust, they have to date been largely overlooked. Fluidized sand, forcefully intruded along normal fault zones, markedly enhances the transmissivity of faults and, in general, the connectivity between otherwise unconnected reservoirs. Here, we provide a detailed outcrop description and interpretation of sandstone-filled normal faults from different stratigraphic units in central California. Such faults commonly show limited fault throw, cm to dm wide apertures, poorly-developed fault zones and full or partial sand infill. Based on these features and inferences regarding their origin, we propose a general classification that defines two main types of sandstone-filled normal faults. Type 1 form as a consequence of the hydraulic failure of the host strata above a poorly-consolidated sandstone following a significant, rapid increase of pore fluid over-pressure. Type 2 sandstone-filled normal faults form as a result of regional tectonic deformation. These structures may play a significant role in the connectivity of siliciclastic reservoirs, and may therefore be crucial not just for investigation of basin evolution but also in hydrocarbon exploration.

AB - Despite the potential of sandstone-filled normal faults to significantly influence fluid transmissivity within reservoirs and the shallow crust, they have to date been largely overlooked. Fluidized sand, forcefully intruded along normal fault zones, markedly enhances the transmissivity of faults and, in general, the connectivity between otherwise unconnected reservoirs. Here, we provide a detailed outcrop description and interpretation of sandstone-filled normal faults from different stratigraphic units in central California. Such faults commonly show limited fault throw, cm to dm wide apertures, poorly-developed fault zones and full or partial sand infill. Based on these features and inferences regarding their origin, we propose a general classification that defines two main types of sandstone-filled normal faults. Type 1 form as a consequence of the hydraulic failure of the host strata above a poorly-consolidated sandstone following a significant, rapid increase of pore fluid over-pressure. Type 2 sandstone-filled normal faults form as a result of regional tectonic deformation. These structures may play a significant role in the connectivity of siliciclastic reservoirs, and may therefore be crucial not just for investigation of basin evolution but also in hydrocarbon exploration.

KW - sandstone-filled normal fault

KW - sandstone intrusions

KW - extensional tectonics

KW - Great valley sequence

KW - San Joaquin valley

KW - Central California

U2 - 10.1016/j.jsg.2018.02.013

DO - 10.1016/j.jsg.2018.02.013

M3 - Article

VL - 110

SP - 86

EP - 101

JO - Journal of Structural Geology

JF - Journal of Structural Geology

SN - 0191-8141

ER -