Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids in feed and food, in particular in lupins and lupin-derived products

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), Dieter Schrenk, Laurent Bodin, James Kevin Chipman, Jesús del Mazo, Bettina Grasl-Kraupp, Christer Hogstrand, Laurentius (Ron) Hoogenboom, Jean Charles Leblanc, Carlo Stefano Nebbia, Elsa Nielsen, Evangelia E. Ntzani, Annette Petersen, Salomon Sand, Tanja Schwerdtle, Heather Mann Wallace, Christiane Vleminckx, Jan Alexander, Bruce Cottrill, Brigit DusemundPatrick Mulder, Davide Arcella, Katleen Baert, Claudia Cascio, Hans Steinkellner, Margherita Bignami

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Abstract

The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in feed and food. This risk assessment is limited to QAs occurring in Lupinus species/varieties relevant for animal and human consumption in Europe (i.e. Lupinus albus L., Lupinus angustifolius L., Lupinus luteus L. and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet). Information on the toxicity of QAs in animals and humans is limited. Following acute exposure to sparteine (reference compound), anticholinergic effects and changes in cardiac electric conductivity are
considered to be critical for human hazard characterisation. The CONTAM Panel used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach identifying a lowest single oral effective dose of 0.16 mg sparteine/kg body weight as reference point to characterise the risk following acute exposure. No reference point could be identified to characterise the risk of chronic exposure. Because of similar modes of action for QAs, the CONTAM Panel used a group approach assuming dose additivity. For food, the highest mean concentration of Total QAs (TotQAs) (i.e. the 6 most abundant QAs) was found in lupin seed samples classified as ‘Lupins (dry) and similar-’. Due to the limited data on occurrence and consumption, dietary exposure was calculated for some specific scenarios and no full human health risk characterisation was possible. The calculated margin of exposures (MOEs) may indicate a risk for some consumers. For example, when lupin seeds are consumed without a debittering step, or as debittered lupin seeds high in QA content and when ‘lupin-based meat imitates’ are consumed. For horses, companion and farm animals, other than salmonids, the available database on adverse effects was too limited to identify no-observed-adverse-effect levels and/or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels and no risk characterisation was possible. For salmonids, the CONTAM Panel considers the risk for adverse effects to be low.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5860
Number of pages113
JournalEFSA Journal
Volume17
Issue number11
Early online date5 Nov 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019

Fingerprint

Quinolizidines
quinolizidine alkaloids
Lupinus
animal and human health
Alkaloids
Food
Health
sparteine
Sparteine
Salmonidae
risk characterization
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Seeds
acute exposure
lowest observed effect level
Lupinus mutabilis
seeds
adverse effects
Lupinus luteus
no observed adverse effect level

Keywords

  • Lupin
  • quinolizidine alkaloid
  • sparteine
  • lupanine
  • margin of exposure
  • fiid
  • feed
  • food
  • margin of exposure (MOE)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary (miscalleneous)
  • Plant Science
  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology

Cite this

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), Schrenk, D., Bodin, L., Chipman, J. K., del Mazo, J., Grasl-Kraupp, B., ... Bignami, M. (2019). Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids in feed and food, in particular in lupins and lupin-derived products. EFSA Journal, 17(11), [5860]. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5860

Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids in feed and food, in particular in lupins and lupin-derived products. / EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM); Schrenk, Dieter; Bodin, Laurent; Chipman, James Kevin; del Mazo, Jesús; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Leblanc, Jean Charles; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Nielsen, Elsa; Ntzani, Evangelia E.; Petersen, Annette ; Sand, Salomon; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Wallace, Heather Mann; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Alexander, Jan; Cottrill, Bruce; Dusemund, Brigit; Mulder, Patrick; Arcella, Davide ; Baert, Katleen; Cascio, Claudia; Steinkellner, Hans ; Bignami, Margherita.

In: EFSA Journal, Vol. 17, No. 11, 5860, 11.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), Schrenk, D, Bodin, L, Chipman, JK, del Mazo, J, Grasl-Kraupp, B, Hogstrand, C, Hoogenboom, LR, Leblanc, JC, Nebbia, CS, Nielsen, E, Ntzani, EE, Petersen, A, Sand, S, Schwerdtle, T, Wallace, HM, Vleminckx, C, Alexander, J, Cottrill, B, Dusemund, B, Mulder, P, Arcella, D, Baert, K, Cascio, C, Steinkellner, H & Bignami, M 2019, 'Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids in feed and food, in particular in lupins and lupin-derived products', EFSA Journal, vol. 17, no. 11, 5860. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5860
EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) ; Schrenk, Dieter ; Bodin, Laurent ; Chipman, James Kevin ; del Mazo, Jesús ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron) ; Leblanc, Jean Charles ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Nielsen, Elsa ; Ntzani, Evangelia E. ; Petersen, Annette ; Sand, Salomon ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Wallace, Heather Mann ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Alexander, Jan ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dusemund, Brigit ; Mulder, Patrick ; Arcella, Davide ; Baert, Katleen ; Cascio, Claudia ; Steinkellner, Hans ; Bignami, Margherita. / Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids in feed and food, in particular in lupins and lupin-derived products. In: EFSA Journal. 2019 ; Vol. 17, No. 11.
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abstract = "The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in feed and food. This risk assessment is limited to QAs occurring in Lupinus species/varieties relevant for animal and human consumption in Europe (i.e. Lupinus albus L., Lupinus angustifolius L., Lupinus luteus L. and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet). Information on the toxicity of QAs in animals and humans is limited. Following acute exposure to sparteine (reference compound), anticholinergic effects and changes in cardiac electric conductivity areconsidered to be critical for human hazard characterisation. The CONTAM Panel used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach identifying a lowest single oral effective dose of 0.16 mg sparteine/kg body weight as reference point to characterise the risk following acute exposure. No reference point could be identified to characterise the risk of chronic exposure. Because of similar modes of action for QAs, the CONTAM Panel used a group approach assuming dose additivity. For food, the highest mean concentration of Total QAs (TotQAs) (i.e. the 6 most abundant QAs) was found in lupin seed samples classified as ‘Lupins (dry) and similar-’. Due to the limited data on occurrence and consumption, dietary exposure was calculated for some specific scenarios and no full human health risk characterisation was possible. The calculated margin of exposures (MOEs) may indicate a risk for some consumers. For example, when lupin seeds are consumed without a debittering step, or as debittered lupin seeds high in QA content and when ‘lupin-based meat imitates’ are consumed. For horses, companion and farm animals, other than salmonids, the available database on adverse effects was too limited to identify no-observed-adverse-effect levels and/or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels and no risk characterisation was possible. For salmonids, the CONTAM Panel considers the risk for adverse effects to be low.",
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note = "Acknowledgements: The Panel wishes to thank the following for the support provided to this scientific output: Giovanna Boschin and Elena Rovesti. The Panel wishes to acknowledge all European competent institutions, Member State bodies and other organisations that provided data for this scientific output.",
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AU - Schrenk, Dieter

AU - Bodin, Laurent

AU - Chipman, James Kevin

AU - del Mazo, Jesús

AU - Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina

AU - Hogstrand, Christer

AU - Hoogenboom, Laurentius (Ron)

AU - Leblanc, Jean Charles

AU - Nebbia, Carlo Stefano

AU - Nielsen, Elsa

AU - Ntzani, Evangelia E.

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AU - Sand, Salomon

AU - Schwerdtle, Tanja

AU - Wallace, Heather Mann

AU - Vleminckx, Christiane

AU - Alexander, Jan

AU - Cottrill, Bruce

AU - Dusemund, Brigit

AU - Mulder, Patrick

AU - Arcella, Davide

AU - Baert, Katleen

AU - Cascio, Claudia

AU - Steinkellner, Hans

AU - Bignami, Margherita

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N2 - The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in feed and food. This risk assessment is limited to QAs occurring in Lupinus species/varieties relevant for animal and human consumption in Europe (i.e. Lupinus albus L., Lupinus angustifolius L., Lupinus luteus L. and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet). Information on the toxicity of QAs in animals and humans is limited. Following acute exposure to sparteine (reference compound), anticholinergic effects and changes in cardiac electric conductivity areconsidered to be critical for human hazard characterisation. The CONTAM Panel used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach identifying a lowest single oral effective dose of 0.16 mg sparteine/kg body weight as reference point to characterise the risk following acute exposure. No reference point could be identified to characterise the risk of chronic exposure. Because of similar modes of action for QAs, the CONTAM Panel used a group approach assuming dose additivity. For food, the highest mean concentration of Total QAs (TotQAs) (i.e. the 6 most abundant QAs) was found in lupin seed samples classified as ‘Lupins (dry) and similar-’. Due to the limited data on occurrence and consumption, dietary exposure was calculated for some specific scenarios and no full human health risk characterisation was possible. The calculated margin of exposures (MOEs) may indicate a risk for some consumers. For example, when lupin seeds are consumed without a debittering step, or as debittered lupin seeds high in QA content and when ‘lupin-based meat imitates’ are consumed. For horses, companion and farm animals, other than salmonids, the available database on adverse effects was too limited to identify no-observed-adverse-effect levels and/or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels and no risk characterisation was possible. For salmonids, the CONTAM Panel considers the risk for adverse effects to be low.

AB - The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in feed and food. This risk assessment is limited to QAs occurring in Lupinus species/varieties relevant for animal and human consumption in Europe (i.e. Lupinus albus L., Lupinus angustifolius L., Lupinus luteus L. and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet). Information on the toxicity of QAs in animals and humans is limited. Following acute exposure to sparteine (reference compound), anticholinergic effects and changes in cardiac electric conductivity areconsidered to be critical for human hazard characterisation. The CONTAM Panel used a margin of exposure (MOE) approach identifying a lowest single oral effective dose of 0.16 mg sparteine/kg body weight as reference point to characterise the risk following acute exposure. No reference point could be identified to characterise the risk of chronic exposure. Because of similar modes of action for QAs, the CONTAM Panel used a group approach assuming dose additivity. For food, the highest mean concentration of Total QAs (TotQAs) (i.e. the 6 most abundant QAs) was found in lupin seed samples classified as ‘Lupins (dry) and similar-’. Due to the limited data on occurrence and consumption, dietary exposure was calculated for some specific scenarios and no full human health risk characterisation was possible. The calculated margin of exposures (MOEs) may indicate a risk for some consumers. For example, when lupin seeds are consumed without a debittering step, or as debittered lupin seeds high in QA content and when ‘lupin-based meat imitates’ are consumed. For horses, companion and farm animals, other than salmonids, the available database on adverse effects was too limited to identify no-observed-adverse-effect levels and/or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels and no risk characterisation was possible. For salmonids, the CONTAM Panel considers the risk for adverse effects to be low.

KW - Lupin

KW - quinolizidine alkaloid

KW - sparteine

KW - lupanine

KW - margin of exposure

KW - fiid

KW - feed

KW - food

KW - margin of exposure (MOE)

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