Secondhand smoke levels in Scottish pubs

The effect of smoke-free legislation

Sean Semple, Karen S. Creely, Audrey Naji, Brian G. Miller, Jon Ayres

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

129 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To compare levels of particulate matter, as a marker of secondhand smoke (SHS) levels, in pubs before and 2 months after the implementation of Scottish legislation to prohibit smoking in substantially enclosed public places.

Design: Comparison of SHS levels before and after the legislation in a random selection of 41 pubs in 2 Scottish cities.

Methods: Fine particulate matter < 2.5 mu m in diameter (PM2.5) was measured discreetly for 30 min in each bar on 1 or 2 visits in the 8 weeks preceding the starting date of the Smoking, Health and Social Care (Scotland) Act 2005 and then again 2 months after the ban. Repeat visits were undertaken on the same day of the week and at approximately the same time of the day.

Results: PM2.5 levels before the introduction of the legislation averaged 246 mu g/m(3) (range 8-902 mu g/m(3)). The average level reduced to 20 mu g/m(3) (range 6-104 mu g/m(3)) in the period after the ban. Levels of SHS were reduced in all 53 post-ban visits, with the average reduction being 86% (range 12-99%). PM2.5 concentrations in most pubs post-ban were comparable to the outside ambient air PM2.5 level.

Conclusions: This study has produced the largest dataset of pre- and post-ban SHS levels in pubs of all worldwide smoke-free legislations introduced to date. Our results show that compliance with the Smoking, Health and Social Care (Scotland) Act 2005 has been high and this has led to a marked reduction in SHS concentrations in Scottish pubs, thereby reducing both the occupational exposure of workers in the hospitality sector and that of non-smoking patrons.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-132
Number of pages6
JournalTobacco Control
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2007

Keywords

  • environmental tobacco-smoke
  • exposure
  • workers
  • bars
  • ban
  • air
  • restaurants
  • risk

Cite this

Semple, S., Creely, K. S., Naji, A., Miller, B. G., & Ayres, J. (2007). Secondhand smoke levels in Scottish pubs: The effect of smoke-free legislation. Tobacco Control, 16(2), 127-132. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2006.018119

Secondhand smoke levels in Scottish pubs : The effect of smoke-free legislation. / Semple, Sean; Creely, Karen S.; Naji, Audrey; Miller, Brian G.; Ayres, Jon.

In: Tobacco Control, Vol. 16, No. 2, 04.2007, p. 127-132.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Semple, S, Creely, KS, Naji, A, Miller, BG & Ayres, J 2007, 'Secondhand smoke levels in Scottish pubs: The effect of smoke-free legislation', Tobacco Control, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 127-132. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2006.018119
Semple, Sean ; Creely, Karen S. ; Naji, Audrey ; Miller, Brian G. ; Ayres, Jon. / Secondhand smoke levels in Scottish pubs : The effect of smoke-free legislation. In: Tobacco Control. 2007 ; Vol. 16, No. 2. pp. 127-132.
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N2 - Objective: To compare levels of particulate matter, as a marker of secondhand smoke (SHS) levels, in pubs before and 2 months after the implementation of Scottish legislation to prohibit smoking in substantially enclosed public places.Design: Comparison of SHS levels before and after the legislation in a random selection of 41 pubs in 2 Scottish cities.Methods: Fine particulate matter < 2.5 mu m in diameter (PM2.5) was measured discreetly for 30 min in each bar on 1 or 2 visits in the 8 weeks preceding the starting date of the Smoking, Health and Social Care (Scotland) Act 2005 and then again 2 months after the ban. Repeat visits were undertaken on the same day of the week and at approximately the same time of the day.Results: PM2.5 levels before the introduction of the legislation averaged 246 mu g/m(3) (range 8-902 mu g/m(3)). The average level reduced to 20 mu g/m(3) (range 6-104 mu g/m(3)) in the period after the ban. Levels of SHS were reduced in all 53 post-ban visits, with the average reduction being 86% (range 12-99%). PM2.5 concentrations in most pubs post-ban were comparable to the outside ambient air PM2.5 level.Conclusions: This study has produced the largest dataset of pre- and post-ban SHS levels in pubs of all worldwide smoke-free legislations introduced to date. Our results show that compliance with the Smoking, Health and Social Care (Scotland) Act 2005 has been high and this has led to a marked reduction in SHS concentrations in Scottish pubs, thereby reducing both the occupational exposure of workers in the hospitality sector and that of non-smoking patrons.

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KW - air

KW - restaurants

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