Tumors deficient in the urea cycle enzymes argininosuccinate synthase-1 (ASS1) and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) are unable to synthesize arginine and can be targeted using arginine-deprivation therapy. Here, we show that colorectal cancers (CRCs) display negligible expression of OTC and, in subset of cases, ASS1 proteins. CRC cells fail to grow in arginine-free medium and dietary arginine deprivation slows growth of cancer cells implanted into immunocompromised mice. Moreover, we report that clinically-formulated arginine-degrading enzymes are effective anticancer drugs in CRC. Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20), which degrades arginine to citrulline and ammonia, affects growth of ASS1-negative cells, whereas recombinant human arginase-1 (rhArg1peg5000), which degrades arginine into urea and ornithine, is effective against a broad spectrum of OTC-negative CRC cell lines. This reflects the inability of CRC cells to recycle citrulline and ornithine into the urea cycle. Finally, we show that arginase antagonizes chemotherapeutic drugs oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), whereas ADI-PEG20 synergizes with oxaliplatin in ASS1-negative cell lines and appears to interact with 5-fluorouracil independently of ASS1 status. Overall, we conclude that CRC is amenable to arginine-deprivation therapy, but we warrant caution when combining arginine deprivation with standard chemotherapy.