The way a rigid cylindrical particle falls through a viscous Newtonian liquid into a loosely packed granular bed of smaller and lighter particles has been studied numerically. This solid-liquid flow system has been solved with the lattice-Boltzmann method combined with an immersed boundary method for explicitly imposing no-slip at the particle surfaces. We study the effect of the orientation of the cylinder (vertical and horizontal), its settling speed (the Reynolds numbers at impact is of the order of 100), and its density (relative to liquid and bed density) on the depth of penetration into the granular bed. The simulation results are particularly sensitive to the friction between particles as parameterized through friction coefficients (varied in the range 0.15 to 0.50). The results have practical relevance for particles getting immobilized – or even buried – in granular beds. More importantly, the simulation cases have been designed such as to allow for straightforward experimentation the results of which would be valuable for further numerical model development.
|Journal||International Journal of Multiphase Flow|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 21 Aug 2022|
- particle-resolved simulation
- lattice-Boltzmann method
- granular bed
- solid-liquid flow