Sex differences in the effect of fish-oil supplementation on the adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older people

a randomized controlled trial

Mariasole Da Boit, Rachael Sibson, Selvaraj Sivasubramaniam, Judith R Meakin, Carolyn A Greig, Richard Aspden, Frank Thies, Stewart Jeromson, D Lee Hamilton, John R Speakman, Catherine Hambly, Arduino A Mangoni, Thomas Preston, Stuart R Gray

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Resistance exercise increases muscle mass and function in older adults, but responses are attenuated compared with younger people. Data suggest that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may enhance adaptations to resistance exercise in older women. To our knowledge, this possibility has not been investigated in men.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation on resistance exercise training-induced increases in muscle mass and function and whether these effects differ between older men and women.

DESIGN: Fifty men and women [men: n = 27, mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 4.5 y, mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 25.6 ± 4.2; women: n = 23, mean ± SD age: 70.7 ± 3.3 y, mean ± SD BMI: 25.3 ± 4.7] were randomly assigned to either long-chain n-3 PUFA (n = 23; 3 g fish oil/d) or placebo (n = 27; 3 g safflower oil/d) and participated in lower-limb resistance exercise training twice weekly for 18 wk. Muscle size, strength, and quality (strength per unit muscle area), functional abilities, and circulating metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured before and after the intervention.

RESULTS: Maximal isometric torque increased after exercise training to a greater (P < 0.05) extent in the long-chain n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group in women, with no differences (P > 0.05) between groups in men. In both sexes, the effect of exercise training on maximal isokinetic torque at 30, 90, and 240° s(-1), 4-m walk time, chair-rise time, muscle anatomic cross-sectional area, and muscle fat did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. There was a greater (P < 0.05) increase in muscle quality in women after exercise training in the long-chain n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group, with no such differences in men (P > 0.05). Long-chain n-3 PUFAs resulted in a greater decrease (P < 0.05) than the placebo in plasma triglyceride concentrations in both sexes, with no differences (P > 0.05) in glucose, insulin, or inflammatory markers.

CONCLUSION: Long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation augments increases in muscle function and quality in older women but not in older men after resistance exercise training. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02843009.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-158
Number of pages8
JournalThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume105
Issue number1
Early online date16 Nov 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017

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Resistance Training
Fish Oils
Sex Characteristics
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Randomized Controlled Trials
Exercise
Muscles
Torque
Safflower Oil
Muscle Strength
Lower Extremity
Body Mass Index
Fats
Placebos
Insulin
Glucose

Keywords

  • aging
  • exercise
  • fatty acids
  • muscle
  • sarcopenia

Cite this

Sex differences in the effect of fish-oil supplementation on the adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older people : a randomized controlled trial. / Da Boit, Mariasole; Sibson, Rachael; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Meakin, Judith R; Greig, Carolyn A; Aspden, Richard; Thies, Frank; Jeromson, Stewart; Hamilton, D Lee; Speakman, John R; Hambly, Catherine; Mangoni, Arduino A; Preston, Thomas; Gray, Stuart R.

In: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 105, No. 1, 01.2017, p. 151-158.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Da Boit, Mariasole ; Sibson, Rachael ; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj ; Meakin, Judith R ; Greig, Carolyn A ; Aspden, Richard ; Thies, Frank ; Jeromson, Stewart ; Hamilton, D Lee ; Speakman, John R ; Hambly, Catherine ; Mangoni, Arduino A ; Preston, Thomas ; Gray, Stuart R. / Sex differences in the effect of fish-oil supplementation on the adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older people : a randomized controlled trial. In: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017 ; Vol. 105, No. 1. pp. 151-158.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Resistance exercise increases muscle mass and function in older adults, but responses are attenuated compared with younger people. Data suggest that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may enhance adaptations to resistance exercise in older women. To our knowledge, this possibility has not been investigated in men.OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation on resistance exercise training-induced increases in muscle mass and function and whether these effects differ between older men and women.DESIGN: Fifty men and women [men: n = 27, mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 4.5 y, mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 25.6 ± 4.2; women: n = 23, mean ± SD age: 70.7 ± 3.3 y, mean ± SD BMI: 25.3 ± 4.7] were randomly assigned to either long-chain n-3 PUFA (n = 23; 3 g fish oil/d) or placebo (n = 27; 3 g safflower oil/d) and participated in lower-limb resistance exercise training twice weekly for 18 wk. Muscle size, strength, and quality (strength per unit muscle area), functional abilities, and circulating metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured before and after the intervention.RESULTS: Maximal isometric torque increased after exercise training to a greater (P < 0.05) extent in the long-chain n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group in women, with no differences (P > 0.05) between groups in men. In both sexes, the effect of exercise training on maximal isokinetic torque at 30, 90, and 240° s(-1), 4-m walk time, chair-rise time, muscle anatomic cross-sectional area, and muscle fat did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. There was a greater (P < 0.05) increase in muscle quality in women after exercise training in the long-chain n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group, with no such differences in men (P > 0.05). Long-chain n-3 PUFAs resulted in a greater decrease (P < 0.05) than the placebo in plasma triglyceride concentrations in both sexes, with no differences (P > 0.05) in glucose, insulin, or inflammatory markers.CONCLUSION: Long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation augments increases in muscle function and quality in older women but not in older men after resistance exercise training. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02843009.",
keywords = "aging , exercise, fatty acids, muscle, sarcopenia",
author = "{Da Boit}, Mariasole and Rachael Sibson and Selvaraj Sivasubramaniam and Meakin, {Judith R} and Greig, {Carolyn A} and Richard Aspden and Frank Thies and Stewart Jeromson and Hamilton, {D Lee} and Speakman, {John R} and Catherine Hambly and Mangoni, {Arduino A} and Thomas Preston and Gray, {Stuart R}",
note = "We thank MC Thivierge for fruitful discussions in the early stages of the study design and B Jagpal for assistance with the MRI. The authors’ responsibilities were as follows—SRG: designed and supervised the study and had primary responsibility for the final content; MDB, RS, and SRG: conducted the study; MDB, SS, and SRG: performed the statistical analysis; MDB, JRM, CAG, RMA, FT, SJ, DLH, JRS, CH, TP, and SRG: performed the sample and image analyses; AAM: provided medical supervision for the study; MDB and SRG: drafted the manuscript; and all authors: read and approved the final manuscript. None of the authors reported a conflict of interest related to the study.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Sex differences in the effect of fish-oil supplementation on the adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older people

T2 - a randomized controlled trial

AU - Da Boit, Mariasole

AU - Sibson, Rachael

AU - Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj

AU - Meakin, Judith R

AU - Greig, Carolyn A

AU - Aspden, Richard

AU - Thies, Frank

AU - Jeromson, Stewart

AU - Hamilton, D Lee

AU - Speakman, John R

AU - Hambly, Catherine

AU - Mangoni, Arduino A

AU - Preston, Thomas

AU - Gray, Stuart R

N1 - We thank MC Thivierge for fruitful discussions in the early stages of the study design and B Jagpal for assistance with the MRI. The authors’ responsibilities were as follows—SRG: designed and supervised the study and had primary responsibility for the final content; MDB, RS, and SRG: conducted the study; MDB, SS, and SRG: performed the statistical analysis; MDB, JRM, CAG, RMA, FT, SJ, DLH, JRS, CH, TP, and SRG: performed the sample and image analyses; AAM: provided medical supervision for the study; MDB and SRG: drafted the manuscript; and all authors: read and approved the final manuscript. None of the authors reported a conflict of interest related to the study.

PY - 2017/1

Y1 - 2017/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Resistance exercise increases muscle mass and function in older adults, but responses are attenuated compared with younger people. Data suggest that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may enhance adaptations to resistance exercise in older women. To our knowledge, this possibility has not been investigated in men.OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation on resistance exercise training-induced increases in muscle mass and function and whether these effects differ between older men and women.DESIGN: Fifty men and women [men: n = 27, mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 4.5 y, mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 25.6 ± 4.2; women: n = 23, mean ± SD age: 70.7 ± 3.3 y, mean ± SD BMI: 25.3 ± 4.7] were randomly assigned to either long-chain n-3 PUFA (n = 23; 3 g fish oil/d) or placebo (n = 27; 3 g safflower oil/d) and participated in lower-limb resistance exercise training twice weekly for 18 wk. Muscle size, strength, and quality (strength per unit muscle area), functional abilities, and circulating metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured before and after the intervention.RESULTS: Maximal isometric torque increased after exercise training to a greater (P < 0.05) extent in the long-chain n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group in women, with no differences (P > 0.05) between groups in men. In both sexes, the effect of exercise training on maximal isokinetic torque at 30, 90, and 240° s(-1), 4-m walk time, chair-rise time, muscle anatomic cross-sectional area, and muscle fat did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. There was a greater (P < 0.05) increase in muscle quality in women after exercise training in the long-chain n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group, with no such differences in men (P > 0.05). Long-chain n-3 PUFAs resulted in a greater decrease (P < 0.05) than the placebo in plasma triglyceride concentrations in both sexes, with no differences (P > 0.05) in glucose, insulin, or inflammatory markers.CONCLUSION: Long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation augments increases in muscle function and quality in older women but not in older men after resistance exercise training. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02843009.

AB - BACKGROUND: Resistance exercise increases muscle mass and function in older adults, but responses are attenuated compared with younger people. Data suggest that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may enhance adaptations to resistance exercise in older women. To our knowledge, this possibility has not been investigated in men.OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation on resistance exercise training-induced increases in muscle mass and function and whether these effects differ between older men and women.DESIGN: Fifty men and women [men: n = 27, mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 4.5 y, mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 25.6 ± 4.2; women: n = 23, mean ± SD age: 70.7 ± 3.3 y, mean ± SD BMI: 25.3 ± 4.7] were randomly assigned to either long-chain n-3 PUFA (n = 23; 3 g fish oil/d) or placebo (n = 27; 3 g safflower oil/d) and participated in lower-limb resistance exercise training twice weekly for 18 wk. Muscle size, strength, and quality (strength per unit muscle area), functional abilities, and circulating metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured before and after the intervention.RESULTS: Maximal isometric torque increased after exercise training to a greater (P < 0.05) extent in the long-chain n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group in women, with no differences (P > 0.05) between groups in men. In both sexes, the effect of exercise training on maximal isokinetic torque at 30, 90, and 240° s(-1), 4-m walk time, chair-rise time, muscle anatomic cross-sectional area, and muscle fat did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. There was a greater (P < 0.05) increase in muscle quality in women after exercise training in the long-chain n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group, with no such differences in men (P > 0.05). Long-chain n-3 PUFAs resulted in a greater decrease (P < 0.05) than the placebo in plasma triglyceride concentrations in both sexes, with no differences (P > 0.05) in glucose, insulin, or inflammatory markers.CONCLUSION: Long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation augments increases in muscle function and quality in older women but not in older men after resistance exercise training. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02843009.

KW - aging

KW - exercise

KW - fatty acids

KW - muscle

KW - sarcopenia

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.116.140780

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.116.140780

M3 - Article

VL - 105

SP - 151

EP - 158

JO - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 1

ER -