Signaling when (and when not) to be cautious and self-protective: impulsive and reflective trust in close relationships

Sandra Murray, Rebecca Pinkus, John Holmes, Brianna Harris, Sarah Gomillion, Maya Aloni, Jaye Derrick, Sadie Leder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner's caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the Implicit Association Test; Zayas & Shoda, 2005) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner's trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)485-502
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
Volume101
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2011

Fingerprint

civil defense
trustworthiness
conditioning
confidence
Short-Term Memory
Marriage

Cite this

Signaling when (and when not) to be cautious and self-protective : impulsive and reflective trust in close relationships. / Murray, Sandra; Pinkus, Rebecca; Holmes, John; Harris, Brianna; Gomillion, Sarah; Aloni, Maya; Derrick, Jaye; Leder, Sadie.

In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 101, No. 3, 09.2011, p. 485-502.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Murray, S, Pinkus, R, Holmes, J, Harris, B, Gomillion, S, Aloni, M, Derrick, J & Leder, S 2011, 'Signaling when (and when not) to be cautious and self-protective: impulsive and reflective trust in close relationships', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 485-502. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023233
Murray, Sandra ; Pinkus, Rebecca ; Holmes, John ; Harris, Brianna ; Gomillion, Sarah ; Aloni, Maya ; Derrick, Jaye ; Leder, Sadie. / Signaling when (and when not) to be cautious and self-protective : impulsive and reflective trust in close relationships. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2011 ; Vol. 101, No. 3. pp. 485-502.
@article{d261815e704c42a8978626a138a8aa25,
title = "Signaling when (and when not) to be cautious and self-protective: impulsive and reflective trust in close relationships",
abstract = "A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner's caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the Implicit Association Test; Zayas & Shoda, 2005) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner's trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity.",
author = "Sandra Murray and Rebecca Pinkus and John Holmes and Brianna Harris and Sarah Gomillion and Maya Aloni and Jaye Derrick and Sadie Leder",
year = "2011",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1037/a0023233",
language = "English",
volume = "101",
pages = "485--502",
journal = "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology",
issn = "0022-3514",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Signaling when (and when not) to be cautious and self-protective

T2 - impulsive and reflective trust in close relationships

AU - Murray, Sandra

AU - Pinkus, Rebecca

AU - Holmes, John

AU - Harris, Brianna

AU - Gomillion, Sarah

AU - Aloni, Maya

AU - Derrick, Jaye

AU - Leder, Sadie

PY - 2011/9

Y1 - 2011/9

N2 - A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner's caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the Implicit Association Test; Zayas & Shoda, 2005) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner's trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity.

AB - A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner's caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the Implicit Association Test; Zayas & Shoda, 2005) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner's trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity.

U2 - 10.1037/a0023233

DO - 10.1037/a0023233

M3 - Article

VL - 101

SP - 485

EP - 502

JO - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

JF - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

SN - 0022-3514

IS - 3

ER -