Stable isotope study of the mineralization and alteration in the Madjarovo Pb-Zn district, south-east Bulgaria

Clive M. Rice, Richard J. McCoyd, Adrian J. Boyce, Peter Marchev

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Madjarovo ore district is centred on the exposed section of a Lower Oligocene volcano and consists of radially disposed Pb - Zn- precious metal veins and attendant intermediate sulfidation wallrock alteration. Earlier high sulfidation and potassic porphyry style alterations are found in the centre of the district spatially associated with monzonitic intrusions. The total duration of all mineralization and alteration was ca. 300 ka. Stable isotope analyses ( S, O, H) have been carried out on a suite of sulfides, sulfates and silicates from the mineralization, high and intermediate sulfidation alterations and a suite of basement rocks. These data range between the following limits: delta S-34(sulfides) =- 1.2 to+6: 8 parts per thousand: delta S-34(sulfates) =+21.4 to +24: 9 parts per thousand; delta O-18(sulfates)+5: 8 to +11: 6 parts per thousand; delta D-sulfates =- 35: 1 to - 67: 1 parts per thousand: delta O-18(silicates)=5: 2 to+13: 5 parts per thousand; delta D-silicates =- 36: 3 to - 77: 0%. We also analysed delta D of fluid inclusions in quartz and barite for which we obtained, respectively, the ranges of - 43.6 to - 78.6 and - 58.4 to - 67.1%. The data show that high sulfidation alteration was dominated by magmatic fluids with minor meteoric water, whereas the fluids responsible for the intermediate sulfidation alteration were essentially magmatic. The fluids responsible for the intermediate sulfidation Pb - Zn mineralization were mixed magmatic - meteoric and certainly contained a significant meteoric component. Sulphur is likely derived from basement and/ or igneous sources. The evolution of alteration and mineralization styles from potassic, porphyry copper style to high sulfidation to intermediate sulfidation can be understood in terms of changing ore fluid composition resulting from an increasing permeability of the system and an increasingly remote source of magmatic fluid with time. These changes link directly to the geological evolution of this volcanic centre.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)691-713
Number of pages23
JournalMineralium Deposita
Volume42
Issue number7
Early online date10 Mar 2007
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2007

Keywords

  • stable isotopes
  • Pb-Zn mineralization
  • alteration
  • Madjarovo
  • Bulgaria
  • hydrothermal ore-deposits
  • acid-sulfate alteration
  • fluid inclusions
  • geothermal systems
  • hydrous minerals
  • epithermal system
  • volcanic center
  • sulfur-dioxide
  • rhodope massif
  • milos-island

Cite this

Stable isotope study of the mineralization and alteration in the Madjarovo Pb-Zn district, south-east Bulgaria. / Rice, Clive M.; McCoyd, Richard J.; Boyce, Adrian J.; Marchev, Peter.

In: Mineralium Deposita, Vol. 42, No. 7, 10.2007, p. 691-713.

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

Rice, Clive M. ; McCoyd, Richard J. ; Boyce, Adrian J. ; Marchev, Peter. / Stable isotope study of the mineralization and alteration in the Madjarovo Pb-Zn district, south-east Bulgaria. In: Mineralium Deposita. 2007 ; Vol. 42, No. 7. pp. 691-713.
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T1 - Stable isotope study of the mineralization and alteration in the Madjarovo Pb-Zn district, south-east Bulgaria

AU - Rice, Clive M.

AU - McCoyd, Richard J.

AU - Boyce, Adrian J.

AU - Marchev, Peter

PY - 2007/10

Y1 - 2007/10

N2 - The Madjarovo ore district is centred on the exposed section of a Lower Oligocene volcano and consists of radially disposed Pb - Zn- precious metal veins and attendant intermediate sulfidation wallrock alteration. Earlier high sulfidation and potassic porphyry style alterations are found in the centre of the district spatially associated with monzonitic intrusions. The total duration of all mineralization and alteration was ca. 300 ka. Stable isotope analyses ( S, O, H) have been carried out on a suite of sulfides, sulfates and silicates from the mineralization, high and intermediate sulfidation alterations and a suite of basement rocks. These data range between the following limits: delta S-34(sulfides) =- 1.2 to+6: 8 parts per thousand: delta S-34(sulfates) =+21.4 to +24: 9 parts per thousand; delta O-18(sulfates)+5: 8 to +11: 6 parts per thousand; delta D-sulfates =- 35: 1 to - 67: 1 parts per thousand: delta O-18(silicates)=5: 2 to+13: 5 parts per thousand; delta D-silicates =- 36: 3 to - 77: 0%. We also analysed delta D of fluid inclusions in quartz and barite for which we obtained, respectively, the ranges of - 43.6 to - 78.6 and - 58.4 to - 67.1%. The data show that high sulfidation alteration was dominated by magmatic fluids with minor meteoric water, whereas the fluids responsible for the intermediate sulfidation alteration were essentially magmatic. The fluids responsible for the intermediate sulfidation Pb - Zn mineralization were mixed magmatic - meteoric and certainly contained a significant meteoric component. Sulphur is likely derived from basement and/ or igneous sources. The evolution of alteration and mineralization styles from potassic, porphyry copper style to high sulfidation to intermediate sulfidation can be understood in terms of changing ore fluid composition resulting from an increasing permeability of the system and an increasingly remote source of magmatic fluid with time. These changes link directly to the geological evolution of this volcanic centre.

AB - The Madjarovo ore district is centred on the exposed section of a Lower Oligocene volcano and consists of radially disposed Pb - Zn- precious metal veins and attendant intermediate sulfidation wallrock alteration. Earlier high sulfidation and potassic porphyry style alterations are found in the centre of the district spatially associated with monzonitic intrusions. The total duration of all mineralization and alteration was ca. 300 ka. Stable isotope analyses ( S, O, H) have been carried out on a suite of sulfides, sulfates and silicates from the mineralization, high and intermediate sulfidation alterations and a suite of basement rocks. These data range between the following limits: delta S-34(sulfides) =- 1.2 to+6: 8 parts per thousand: delta S-34(sulfates) =+21.4 to +24: 9 parts per thousand; delta O-18(sulfates)+5: 8 to +11: 6 parts per thousand; delta D-sulfates =- 35: 1 to - 67: 1 parts per thousand: delta O-18(silicates)=5: 2 to+13: 5 parts per thousand; delta D-silicates =- 36: 3 to - 77: 0%. We also analysed delta D of fluid inclusions in quartz and barite for which we obtained, respectively, the ranges of - 43.6 to - 78.6 and - 58.4 to - 67.1%. The data show that high sulfidation alteration was dominated by magmatic fluids with minor meteoric water, whereas the fluids responsible for the intermediate sulfidation alteration were essentially magmatic. The fluids responsible for the intermediate sulfidation Pb - Zn mineralization were mixed magmatic - meteoric and certainly contained a significant meteoric component. Sulphur is likely derived from basement and/ or igneous sources. The evolution of alteration and mineralization styles from potassic, porphyry copper style to high sulfidation to intermediate sulfidation can be understood in terms of changing ore fluid composition resulting from an increasing permeability of the system and an increasingly remote source of magmatic fluid with time. These changes link directly to the geological evolution of this volcanic centre.

KW - stable isotopes

KW - Pb-Zn mineralization

KW - alteration

KW - Madjarovo

KW - Bulgaria

KW - hydrothermal ore-deposits

KW - acid-sulfate alteration

KW - fluid inclusions

KW - geothermal systems

KW - hydrous minerals

KW - epithermal system

KW - volcanic center

KW - sulfur-dioxide

KW - rhodope massif

KW - milos-island

U2 - 10.1007/s00126-007-0130-x

DO - 10.1007/s00126-007-0130-x

M3 - Literature review

VL - 42

SP - 691

EP - 713

JO - Mineralium Deposita

JF - Mineralium Deposita

SN - 0026-4598

IS - 7

ER -